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petak, 6. siječnja 2012.

The Case Of The Fake Croatian Latin AlpHabet......Was Ljudevit Gaj A Reptilian ShapesHifter Mirage?

An unfaked Image of Ljudevit Gaj (pronounced Lyoo-de-vit Guy) on a Croatian postal stamp. (Serb historians say that Serbo linguists took his sandwich when he wasn't looking and slipped some Serbian milk into his coffee in 1841 and therefore say he was a Srbo that didn't exist, which sounds very made up)

Learn the true history behind the Croatian alphabet and why Serbs tried to appropriate and steal it, but failed....

Learn why the Croatian alphabet and language in all of our dialects has always and at all times included the sound and letter "H"....

Learn why V.K. completely abandoned the official and Serb church approved 19th century Serb cyrillic alphabet, cut it in half and eventually came to realize that the "H" sound which Croatian language used did indeed exist.... 

Learn about the over 10 centuries of Croatian literary and orthography continuity that never once oriented towards another peoples alphabet, orthography or script system but instead resulted in the Croatian alphabet that the Croatian language uses even today....

Learn why since at least the 14th century the Croatian language started a progressive and unwavering continuity of using Latin script in writing and printing the Croatian literary corpus...

Learn why the use of Latin script in writing the Croatian language is directly connected to Croatia's long western cultural and personal European civilizational and literary history...

*Note - This post will include facts and images which were added to give a clearer and overall informative picture to the reader. Sometimes giving a little extra background information to give a better understanding of the point being presented, sometimes you gotta tell it like it is. At times the points presented are included within the overall theme of the times and may at some points read like a biography. Most importantly however, at the end of this post the reader will learn 10 things:

1- Who Ljudevit Gaj was. You will learn that Ljudevit Gaj did not need to overhaul or drastically reform the Croatian Language as Vuk Karadzic did because Croatian literature had a natural continuum in it's dialects, especially štokavian dialect, reaching back hundreds of years, so it did not need major reforming. You will learn that Ljudevit Gaj also did not need to reform the Croatian Latin alphabet for written works but just fine tuned a few characters. The final standardization of Croatian alphabet and language was centered on what had already been spoken and written for centuries in Croatian lands.

2- The Latin script Croatian alphabet he devised, as well as the meaning of important linguistic terms including 'digraph', 'diacritic', 'phoneme' 'transliteration' and 'orthography' ' and how they relate to the Croatian alphabet system vis-a-vis the Serbo Cyrillic system. THIS will also make much more sense later on as well.

3- Which and who's alphabet and orthographic principle Serbs really use when they can't read or write the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet designed by Vuk Karadzic for Serbs. You will know that there is a Vuk Karadzic designed Serbo Cyrilic system for Serbian and a Ljudevit Gaj designed Croatian Latin script system for Croatian.

4- Have a clearer understanding of the history of various European Slavic languages alphabets, their scripts, orthographies and how they relate to and have influenced each other since medieval times and even from the times of Proto-Slavic. You will also know that Croatians have 3 dialects. All 3 dialects over the centuries had an influence and contributed to today's Croatian standard language.

5- That the Croatian orthography standardizing and political work of Ljudevit Gaj and his peers was ultimately vindicated by the Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language during the Croatian Spring. Also that the Croatian language, (along with Ljudevit Gaj's Latin Croatian script) will be the European Unions 28th Official Language, thus officially putting in the grave permanently the Communist era imposed relic and made-up political agenda term Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian or even Klingon, for a language that has never existed because it is 2 different peoples with their own official languages, dialects, dictionaries/grammars histories, literary corpus histories and scripts/alphabet histories to begin with, as well as civilizational/cultural histories. (the last part I will translate into Serbian for Serbian readers if any: никада није постојао, јер на то почињу два различита народа са властитим званичним језицима, дијалектима, речницима/граматичарима, историјама књижевних корпуса и историјатима скрипте/алфабета, као и цивилизацијским/културним историјама)

6- That nations are free to choose whichever script/writing system they desire as well as how many scripts they desire to write their language in, but that it should be truthfully and universally acknowledged as to who, where, when, how and which orthographic principles were involved in designing the script and who designed it. You will come to realize that many things presented and told on Serbo sites and through Serbo mouths are laughable fabrications. That blatant lies and insinuations as to the non-existence and/or unimportance of Ljudevit Gaj, the Croatian National Revival, predecessors of Ljudevit Gaj who contributed to his ideas and to Croatian literary, linguistic and lexicological history in a Latin script continuum, should be taken as seriously as those Serbos who fabricate and espouse history as to the non-existence and/or unimportance of verified Croatian history, as better explained HERE.

7- Will know that the Serbo linguist Vuk Karadzic attempted to steal the Illyrian Movement/Croatian National Revival envisioned by Ljudevit Gaj, (more on this topic below) his peers and Croatian literary scholars then usurp it and conceptualize it as strictly Serbo. Even to the point of visualizing Slovenians and other South Slavic people as Serbos. You will have a clearer understanding of the meaning behind the terms 'subterfuge', 'fake', 'suspension of disbelief', 'fantasy', 'chicanery', 'Serbisms', 'Politically Motivated" 'Modus Operandi' and that they teach alternate histories and skewed versions of reality in Serbo schools.

8- You will learn that to transliterate Serbo Cyrillic into Latin script according to Vuk Karadzic's orthographic principles, it would strictly and only use diacritic's and absolutely no digraph's at all, such as the Turkish alphabet. Also, that accordingly the official script of Serbia today is as it properly should be. The new language and script designed by a Serbo for Serbos...his new Serbo Cyrillic

9- That whatever ridiculous attempts at historical revisionism I came across in the original Serbo portal and couple of chat sites which inspired me to make this post, are blatantly erroneous, very misleading and very wrong. Including pathologically errant allusions as to the non-existence or unimportance of Ljudevit Gaj, of fellow Croatian men of letters, of centuries old Croatian literary history using Latin script which was the basis for his standardization work, of Croatian language dictionaries and grammar history, and even of the Croatian National Revival movement itself. Serbo allusions that are eerily similar to lies regarding the non-existence of Croats and Croatian history, as well as other Slavic Non-Serbo history, which can also be easily proven wrong.

10- You will also learn that besides the topics of Croatian digraphs, diacritics, dictionaries and orthography, grammars and dialects, that Ljudevit Gaj and the Croatian linguists only fine-tuned our alphabet concerning the representing of a few sounds.(You will see which ones and how)  On the other hand Vuk Karadzic for the Serbo-Slavic language overhauled the Serbo Cyrillic alphabet and language completely by bringing it closer to what Croatians (and other Latin script Slavic writing nations) and Croatian literature was already using. He did this by:

A)- Keeping previous original 24 letters of the in use minimum 49 letter Serbo Cyrillic alphabet.

B)- (That is omitting at least 25 letters)

C)- By then adding 6 new letters......before proceeding again to borrow heavily from Croatian literary history and dictionary/grammar and lexicography history. This will help shed light on who's alphabet was part of a centuries long, natural continuum, and who's overnight made Serbo Cyrillic alphabet was almost unrecognizable to it's previous version of at least 49 letters. (Someone reading using his alphabet compared to the one in use just a few years earlier would be dumbfounded to understand the text and make any sense of it. It's sort of difficult to comprehend text when less than half of the letters are familiar to the reader from the original 49 letter alphabet. This again helps define even clearer the definition of "Croatian natural literary continuum"). In summary, in the 19th century V.K and the Srbs completely abandoned the official Srbo alphabet, (as well as their Torlakian dialect heritiage) orthography and literary language to bring the new Srbo Cyrillic closer to the Latin script orthography and system of what and how the Croatian dialects were already being written in for centuries, and importantly strictly and only in Serb cyrillic. As you continue reading, feel free to click onto the links to understand better and see for yourselves the centuries natural literary continuum of the Croatian language using the Latin script up to and after Ljudevit Gaj.



Early 19th century "one and only" Serb official and even Serb church blessed Serbian alphabet. Croatians never in history used or published with the below 19th century official Serb alphabet. Also never and at no time did Croatian literary history attempt to use or publish books featuring the official Serb Cyrillic alphabet or follow it's phonemic orthography or script graphemes. Read on to find out why half of it was thrown in the garbage and it didn't even have an "H" letter/sound.

The Serbo alphabet at the time of Vuk Karadzic containing 49 cyrillic letters. Whereas the work of Ljudevit Gaj and his colleagues only continued the natural centuries long continuum of the Croatian literary corpus and alphabet... (Especially continuing the work of his predecessor Pavao Ritter Vitezović)..V.K. admitted that he worked hard to distance his new reformed/transformed (butchered is a term that could also be used) alphabet from Serbo-Slavonic and Russian. There were actually four types of literary languages at the time of V.K.: Serbian Church Slavonic, folk, Russian Church Slavonic and Slavo-Serbian and the letters had no vocal basis. Sometimes even more than 49 letters could be used. The dysfunctionality, disunity, arbitrariness and instability of the literary language as a system were a source of great difficulties and a source of embarrassment. Furthermore, this language had no defined grammar, and it was used in a form that suited whoever used it. The alphabet seen above and it's accompanying phonology was in effect a disaster.

Before starting to read this blog, I recommend watching this short video. about Serbians stealing and singing Albanian songs and possibly a quick refresher by taking a look again at the  Danish and Norwegian alphabet which is used for their respective languages. If you need another more factual short refresher related to Croatian language and orthography history before continuing, read HERE and HERE. If the reader follows the facts presented they will have a clearer understanding of the continuum of the Croatian language using Latin script, of Croatian dictionaries, grammars, published works, of spelling, meaning, orthography, graphemes, ligatures, diacritics and importantly digraphs in this exposé, and relationship to other Slavic languages. Facts presented will be for the most part be in the style of that Ancient Aliens Debunked commentator guy, with sources and reference material to back up what I'm telling you. (Some humour as well) The reader will find the facts presented to be much more simpler to understand in many ways than even today's English language spelling rules.

This one is kind of funny. I have a little extra time now and decided to look into and comment on this topic and page image with the strange mixed and all over the place alphabets on it, especially the Croatian column which is especially error filled . For the whole history and story behind the standard Croatian language and alphabet and Latin script history of the Croatian language, Croatian dialects, (and alphabets used in the past including Glagolitic) , one will have to click onto the links. There's too much information about the history of the Croatian language and it's dialects, going back to over a thousand years, to include into one just one short post. This topic reminds me of that funny Serbian media 2008 Beijing Olympic story which I added a video of below as well.  Ties in perfectly I think. One can also view this post within a more in-depth context HERE

A reader of Croatian will know what I'm talking about, the person not familiar with the Croatian language, alphabet, or Slavic ones, you will have to read up on the subject. However, all the information presented here is pretty easy to follow and verify, even a novice in any Slavic languages. The best I can do to give a similar example of the bizarreness would be like coming across an article where you  read that it was the Chinese who travelled into outer space before the U.S. or the Soviets, complete with the names of the Chinese astronaut names, even some American astronaut names, some Soviet cosmonaut names, maybe some Japanese astronaut names even, switching the names of  U.S or Soviet astronauts/cosmonauts, and then not even mentioning anything about there being a U.S, Soviet or Japanese space program.

The 2nd page image below is from a  Serbo Cyrillic website with an image that is dated 1841, which I originally came upon by way of a Serbo news portal, totally by happenstance while looking for Croatian alphabet/Ljudevit Gaj related stuff. (It makes no mention of Ljudevit Gaj whatsoever, no mention of sources for anything,  but has a faked Croatian alphabet Latin grapheme script dated from 1841. Also it has strange Latin character combinations in both the Croatian (which is what caught my attention initially) and an all of a sudden new Serbo column as well, a Serbo Latin column. (No other Serbo published material before this time anywhere had a Latin script version of Serbo btw as you will see, but a cyrillic and something entirely different). Like I said, contradictory systems in the same Serbo column also, missing characters, replaced characters, previously used Croatian characters being moved over to the Serb column, other strange characters replacing them in the Croatian column, omitted characters, incorrect characters all over the place. All mixed up and strange. Very strange and ludicrous I thought because Serbo linguist Vuk Karadzic only worked on and designed and was strictly concerned with standardizing a Serbo Cyrillic alphabet system during his whole life. Never before this did he or anyone ever publish a Latin grapheme version of Serbo ever, in not one of his books or publications. How strange that all of a sudden he, according to the image, had a faked jumbled Croatian Latin alphabet script included that was different and already 11 years after the start of Ljudevit Gaj's standardizing work, and other strange discrpencies with the other language alphabet columns also). Why was he slipping in this mixed up and sloppy looking script chart in his new first Serbian dictionary. I immediately thought what's this? ..

The image above that is a photo of something that looks more like an original of a page, from the same or similar "page". But wait a second, here there is no faked Croatian alphabets. Ljudevits Gaj's Latin alphabet and script IS the proper and correct Croatian Latin alphabet and script in the correct column this time. The Latin script  he devised and was already standardizing 11 years previous in 1830 and in 1836-38 especially, was very, very different from the brand new first Serbian dictionary version accorded to V.K. So why this blatantly untruthful discrepancies?  What is going on?  Is someone(s) trying to take a step back in history in this image and make him and the centuries of Croatian literary continuity non-existent? Hmmm? I had to look into this, get to the  bottom of this erroneous misrepresentation of world known commonly accepted truths that we've known for a long, long time. Find out what these mixed up, mish mashed and orthographically contradicting alphabets/scripts are all about.  Find out who was passing off who's alphabetic Latin script's here, Why characters are missing here and there, why is there Hungarian digraphs thrown into the Croatian column in supposedly 1841, and then some of Ljudevit Gaj's Croatian Latin characters moved over to the Serbo column, question marks for the letter "H" in the Serbo column, even 2 digraphs sets for 1 phoneme in the same column. Strange Latin character sets throughout, alphabets that have never been used by either, characters replaced and missing. Discrepencies in the other Latin grapheme script languages alphabets also I noticed. (but Bohemian is Czech and Carniolan is Slovenian so why not title the column correctly?). Something fishy and fake was going on, just like I knew this mermaid footage was fake as soon as I saw it. I had to find out who's being the reptilian shapeshifter here?  I had to find some publications or books from that time and later that was using these presented alphabets and scripts and also the ligatures/graphemes that were being presented as well.

The proper Croatian Latin alphabet based on Ljudevit Gaj's initial standardization work is seen below. Complete with Ljudevit's digraphs (as well as Czech and Polish alphabet influenced diacritics) representing phonemes/sounds. This is in opposition to the Serbo Cryillic which contains no digraphs or diacritics at all, most importantly the digraphs. This is the Latin Croatian alphabet Ljudevit Gaj started designing in 1830 and was updated in 1835-38 for the Croatian National Revival and "Danica" Pan-Slavic publications. Various diacritics were already in use in his "Croatian Orthography" in 1830. (photos below and throughout) "Dž" is even an example of a digraph AND a diacritic used at once to make a sound/phoneme. Correct Croatian Alphabet in proper column, and most importantly with the correct Latin script characters. One can see this is a true certified image from an actual page from a book that was published in 1852.  In the first column is the Serbo alphabet, then other corresponding language alphabet scripts to help with translating.  As you keep reading, by the end of this post you will know from which book this page came from and what it all importantly means.

Page 2 from Serbian linguist Vuk Karadzic's 1852 edition of his updated first ever Serbian dictionary. Added as a supplement to help translate between languages and probably after he came to his senses, as you will see. Here we see the proper Croatian alphabet in it's proper column, the new Serb alphabet to the left and the other Latin grapheme script languages alphabets. (Bohemian is Czech and Carniolan is Slovenian btw so why not title the column correctly? You'll also notice the strange alphabetical order in these examples and even today in the Serbian cyrillic alphabet, as the Croatian alphabet and the others all start with the similar A, B, C, D, E etc order). This proper version of the Croatian alphabet is based on the reality after Ljudevit Gaj's work in the 1830's and previous Croatian literary history, and not V.K.'s previously faked jumbled mixed arbitrarily made columns since 1818. It gets much more interesting though as you read on about before this point though, very interesting indeed)

Now, as we move on to the image below, a reader proficient or even semi-proficient in Croatian will notice the errors below immediately, so I circled the points of interest, omissions and errors to compare the real and fake Croatian alphabet versions for the novice. (The current Serbo Cyrilic alphabet is called the "Azbuka" btw, (Derived from the name of the first 2 letters of the first Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet, Glagolitic was also called Azbuka in the past). The Croatian is even these days called "Gajica" as a familiar coin term, or simply just "abeceda"(Pronounced ah-beh-tse-da) The Slovenian, Bosnian, Montenegrin Latin script alphabets are all officially credited to Ljudevit Gaj's work and called "Gajica. This fake version that you will see below is dated to 1841 for Vuk Karadzic's book about Serbian poems.  A reported reprint from his previous prints of the book starting from 1815, which btw none of them had a Serbo Latin version chart for comparison with other languages/alphabets.  

Besides even other irregularities in the Serb column, note especially the ? where the "H" sound is supposed to be.  Even a Latin letter "X" corresponding to the Croatian letter "S" which is really bizarre also, and much more.  Totally f****ed up.  All in total and summed up, a faked and misrepresented Croatian Alphabet, as well as Faked Serbian Latin script alphabet. A mishmash of characters, orthographic principles, missing characters, sloppily added characters, archaic character combinations, misplaced Croatian alphabet characters and more.

Why is the Serb one faked too?  Because no Serb ever used or published his alphabet being presented in the image below, just as no Croatian used the pile of rubbish he tried to pawn of as the Croatian alphabet. Vuk Karadzic or anybody before him never even attempted any sort of standardized Latin script for the at the time Slavo-Serbo language anyway. (It was actually called that btw, a mixture of Old Church Slavonic, Russian elements with Torlakian at the same time. Many Turkish loan words as well)... Zero. All vernacular and literary work in Serbia by Serbos was always various versions of Cyrillic. Vuk Karadzic was strictly concerned with making a new Serbian Cyrillic for his new Serbo language at the time of this page image and that is all he ever wrote in. You're eyes are going to really open up from this point onward, the next time you see V.K.'s first ever Serbian dictionary faked alphabets page and columns image included at some Serbian site somewhere, or just floating around with some kind faked description, you'll be able to grin and laugh......

Read on to find out more about this spontaneously out of the blue appearing faked Serbo and faked Croatian alphabet display, (and other questionable discrepancies in the other columns also), why it's all mixed up, historically inaccurate, filled with errors and incoherent, never officially used by anyone at any time as well as other juicy literary history details that will destroy this personal hoodwink attempt to make the viewer a gullible moron...

Firstly for arguments sake, as a bizarro world hypothetical question in this already laughably falsified and jumbled error filled page (the English column also doesn't contain an "H" either? wow)...Is the above portrayed Serb Latin script then the one Serbs were writing and publishing in and with? Is even this example of V.K.'s new Serb Cyrillic alphabet the one they were writing and publishing with in Serbia later? Better yet, Is it not then the one that Serbs should be using even right now then?, as well as the Cyrillic script characters and their sounds that are shown? (Was he maybe high on crack or some kind of cheap hallucinogen?). Why is not this alphabets columns page celebrated by Serbs? (Were the other national alphabets columns also the reality at the time?) Could it be because it is contrary to the reality of the times and the reality of what Croatian literary history works and publications were actually using from even before and after? The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts or any other Serbo "Literary Center" makes no mention of anything portrayed above being any sort of official alphabets anything. Were Serbo publications using these scripts and alphabets? The above faked alphabets columns image is the only one ever referred to by a few Serbian irredentists and story tellers I came across on the internet who like to think that it is true. (I remind the reader that not 1 book in the history of the world, especially since that time, was using either of the portrayed faked Latin script alphabets. The work of Ljudevit Gaj and Croatian literary movements was being done according to already existing centuries of Croatian literary history and didn't follow the above faked alphabets representations. If they did then what need would there have been for Ljudevit and his supporters to do anything or even exist).  No mention at all usually about Ljudevit Gaj, Croatian literary history, publications or writers,  and especially the correct alphabet/script chart shown above in the first example from 1852. (They usually do the same thing in regards to Croatian history in general though). Starting from Vuk's first Serbian dictionary in 1818 which in the process attempted to show equivalents of different languages alphabet letters, there is absolutely no mention about any previous Latin letter based writing dictionaries, grammars, lexicographical material or any previous Serbian publication history at all. This above image I found out was just arbitrarily added by Vuk Karadzic himself and entitled as "his" "Comparative orthography of European languages" in his 1841 reprint of Serbian folk poems in Vienna. (The above is the only alphabets image version ever found on the whole internet regarding this reprint. No explanation or description of what really is going on with the page columns. Just this shady spontaneous alphabets column page out of nowhere to look at). Previous prints of the same first Serbian dictionary book also contained no mention of previous literary history, ie: what did the Serb Latin characters alphabet look like before V.K. came along, or 17th-18th century as comparative examples. (You'll see later). What's more, the bizarro question asked again..."Is this not then the Cyrillic and Serb Latin script that Serbs should be using today then?" The reality is that V.K.'s portrayed alphabets are not the ones that Croatians used then or use now or ever will use. (It seems anyone can write anything on paper because paper is just paper and doesn't ask questions)

 What is very evident by the above, as you will clearly see, is that Vuk Karadzic for this specific reprint and "his" first Serbian dictionary appropriated previous Croatian Latin script literary and alphabet history and then attempted to spontaneously misrepresent it as Serbian, then putting faked version characters in the Croatian column, but more than that, even omitting characters, putting in even dual sets of characters, juggling around Latin characters back and forth, arbitrarily putting in other language Latin and archaic character combinations in the Croatian column, and more, attempting to portray to it as official. (even though V.K. was not Croatian or writing any kind of book concerned about Croatian literary history). Even his Serb column includes 3 mixed Cyrillic versions, so who the hell knows what was going on in his mind.  According to the page image, does English even have an "A" or "H"?..... Just really all a big mess and very sloppy, orthographically confused and an amateurish attempt in trying to hastily portray some kind of an all of a sudden official Latinized Serbo and then a very corrupted, skewed, misrepresented and never officially used version of Croatian. Even more bizarre...The digraph system which was and is contrary to the Serbian Vuk Karadzic inspired orthography system are beside the red arrows. The digraph system was and is against his very own orthography law from the beginning. IT WAS HIS VERY OWN LAW. It is plainly evident V.K. attempted in his brand new very first Serbian dictionary to steal elements from previous Croatian literary history and appropriate many orthographic elements. It is actually such a sloppy hoodwink job though because every version of the Latin based letters in both columns are strictly from centuries previously used Croatian literary history. (See "Danica Ilirska" book cover examples below, excerpt from 1840 and Croatian Orthography book from 1830, was Ljudevit Gaj and his supporters using the portrayed fake version column by V.K.?). Overall, just some kind of an attempt to sloppily incorporate into his 1841 poem book reprint and first Serbian dictionary a haphazard and mixed up set of scripts and orthographic laws.  But most importantly to knowledgeable linguists and me, is that he erroneously credited the Croatian Latin alphabet as a faked mixed up version that is not historically accurate and didn't make any orthographical sense. The Serbo Latinized version even ends up being some orthography nightmare from script hell in the process as well. Sort of like a box of puzzle pieces containing pieces from various puzzles, then attempting to make them all fit into 1 finished complete puzzle. It really makes me glad Ljudevit Gaj and Croatian linguists from that time are not officially associated with these drivel alphabet scripts in anyway whatsoever.  I mean even Croatians knew that the "H" sound exists at least. All of this by deduction also makes his poem book sources suspect as well as the sources for his first Serbian dictionary. (More on that below). His insinuating that all sources for his stories, songs and poems that he came across in all his "travels outside of Serbia" (which contained large Non-Serb populations and were actually not Serb lands but Croatian, Hungarian and other Habsburg royal crown lands) was all magically strictly Serbian is the omission of many facts and utter hubris. That seems very improbable and unlikely because of his many contradictory additions and edits when compared with literature and spoken language patterns in Serbia at that time). Now, the only place where this imaginary out of nowhere alphabets chart is found is as an appendix to the 1841 reprint and V.K.'s 1818 first Serbian dictionary. No display of of previous versions or literary history facts up to that point because there is/was no Serbian Latin script material whatsoever in existence to compare it to.  In this modern day and age this would be classified as a severe case of plagarism, defamation and slander. (FAMOSUS LIBELLUS).  A free cool looking "Croatianicity" t-shirt to any individual who can find 1 published book out there that contains/uses the above page image alluded to faked Serb latin script, and ridiculously portrayed  fake Croatian latin script alphabet, maybe even the other languages columns too.  Why would Vuk Karadzic all of a sudden hastily and very sloppily decide to become a Latin script alphabets authority about other national alphabets and arbitrarily start mixing and moving Latin script characters for other languages as well? Why would Vuk Karadzic, coming from a completely Cyrillic and Non-Latin script reading and writing background and national history, on behalf of a completely Cyrillic and Non-Latin script reading and writing nation, a country with absolutely no Latin script literary history, attempt to pass off as true a bunch of mixed up characters, linguistic principles and other untrue standards and inconsistencies all of a sudden???  A script that he had no familiarity with or ever used and was not even seen until he came up with his new presto alphabets columns??? (It seems to me that if anyone was to believe the above page image as true, then they might as well believe Jesus is a Serbian). Read on to find out much more about this, the political ambitions and agendas behind it and other very interesting stuff.......

The few main points to remember from the information above:

  • The Croatian Latin based script alphabet although already extremely similar across the Croatian lands from well before and even after Ljudevit Gaj, wasn't standardized yet during the time of V.K's new first ever Serbian dictionary in 1818, so the presented personally faked Croatian alphabet column especially (and probably some of the others also) is blatantly erroneous, misrepresented and so null and void.
  • If the presented faked Croatian alphabet column were in fact true, (which it isn't as will be shown), then there would simply be no need of Ljudevit Gaj or his supporters to eventually do any Croatian alphabet standardizing work or write any publications at all.
  • Vuk Karadzic and his first Serbian dictionary project was not part of Croatian literary history at any time and he was not an authority about Croatian literary history. (hence the jumbled mixed up Latin based characters found throughout the columns). Coming from a strictly Cyrillic historical literary background his work was strictly concerned with his newly devised Serbian cyrillic alphabet and accompanying newly made very first Serb cyrillic dictionary which was written completely in Serbian cyrillic.
  • The Serbian cyrillic alphabet used prior to V.K. (which will be shown and explained in better detail later) was never at any time a part of the already for centuries existing and written/published literature with Croatian Latin based letters alphabets. 
  • The Croatian alphabet and literary history before, during or after the time of Ljudevit Gaj never at any time required deleting almost half of the alphabet letters/sounds, reforming or adding any new sounds and letters which weren't already in use. 
  • The combinations of the correctly placed vowels and consonants as well as the faked incorrectly placed digraphs and Latin script diacritic letters for corresponding sounds in both columns were actually and factually already used and published/written with for centuries at various times in Croatian literary history, but was nonexistent in the Serbian literary corpus and history right up to V.K.'s time. ie: they didn't just appear new in the 19th century as per V.K.'s suddenly invented new history and the personally fabricated made up jumbled columns. (a few examples will be shown later which will prove this)
  • The linear already centuries existing Croatian literary, dictionary and grammar history sufficed and already included every sound that Ljudevit Gaj standardized in the 19th century. The Croatian alphabet history is a direct result and product of it's very own centuries long linear literary corpus and not from V.K.'s newly made first Serbian dictionary project and its newly displayed erroneous jumbled alphabets columns. (V.K's own newly made Serb cyrillic alphabet was even rejected by writers and Serb church authorities in Serbia and it wasn't officially accepted for use until decades later after his death)
  • Croatians knew how to read, write, publish literature, dictionaries, grammars and other lexicographical material with the Latin script based graphemes/letters (the diagraphs and diacritics included) and did so for many centuries long before V.K. personally invented his alternate reality spontaneously newly appearing jumbled mixed up alphabets columns (a few examples of this will also be shown later)

The answers to the questions posed so far will be answered from this point forward. You will know why the Serbo and Croatian columns are both blatantly wrong and error filled. You will find out how and why it is that strange character combinations are found in the Croatian column for sounds and why Croatian character/sound combinations are found in the Serbo column of the previously shown V.K. bizarro mystery page. You will find out why the missing characters/sounds of the Croatian alphabet used up to that time, and even now, are not shown. You will find out where the missing sounds in the Serbo alphabet came from. By the end of this post you will know that the Croatian alphabet and Croatian literary continuity, especially from the time of Ljudevit Gaj, never strayed or changed or transformed into something new, yet it was also ultimately the basis for the Serbian alphabet...and more. Below is a chart showing a few of the major sounds that are a characteristic of and central to the Croatian language, how they were represented  well before, during and after Ljudevit Gaj and even today. The below ligatures are just a few of the ones misrepresented in the faked alphabets page accorded to V.K, but very important ones as explained. This chart will be shown and discussed again near the end of this post and will be much better understood and illuminating.

Notice in this digraphs and diacritics highlighted case how the digraph and diacritic sounds always existed and were represented throughout the Croatian literary and  lexicographical  publications history, (even the previously already originally used diacritics until changed during the Danica publications), but importantly also for the exact same sounds that carried forward which again verifies the uninterrupted Croatian Latin script alphabet continuity right up to this very day. (you will also soon see how on the contrary in the Serbian alphabet continuity case it was instead for many centuries strictly a Cyrillic script with many more sounds and ligatures/cyrillic letters and an altogether completely different alphabet in the 19th century that was not part of the Croatian literary/alphabet history continuity. *as well as that V.K. in truth threw almost half of the in use official Serbian Cyrillic alphabet sounds/ligatures into the garbage*)

In the meantime however, you will notice also right away when comparing the above continuity chart to the already shown V.K.'s 1818 mixed up alphabet columns, that besides the inconsistencies, omissions and mess of phonology/grapheme representations, that the Č/č and  Ć/ć Latin ligatures that continued into Ljudevit Gaj's publications and Croatian alphabet, and hence likewise into the modern day Croatian alphabet also, and which were included from the previous Croatian literary corpus and phonology/ligature history continuum seen directly above, they are missing and not represented at all. However, just like the other six ligatures shown which are an important consonant feature of the Croatian alphabet, they did continue from the previous Croatian alphabet/phonology/grapheme continuity, the same sounds verified from at least 1670 during the work of Vitezović (but as you will see also from before in the 15th-16th century including from the contributions of Faust Vrančić (which also entered the Hungarian alphabet) and the use of č and ž by Šime Budinić in the 1580s, as well as the works of Dinko Zlatarić, Ivan Gundulić, Džore Držić, Marko Marulić, Hanibal Lucić, Šiško Menčetić, Bartol Kašić, Petar Zoranić and others to be discussed later) and most importantly...ARE ALSO IN THE CROATIAN ALPHABET EVEN TODAY, THESE IMPORTANT SPECIFIC CONSONANT SOUNDS WERE THERE ALL ALONG REACHING BACK TO AT LEAST 1670. V.K.'s purported 1818 alphabets page did not include either of them in either column. This is a very illuminating fact, just these two examples alone also verify that the Croatian alphabet from the time of Ljudevit Gaj to today, includes features/phonology/graphemes that were already inherent in Croatian literary history, but in the Serb Cyrillic case it was absolutely NOT and NOT even close to the Croatian alphabet history. Also not shown here, but discussed in more detail later, is the fact that the Croatian "H" sound/letter also importantly continued on from the previous literary continuity up to today without any issue or interruption. There was never a problem or issue regarding the Croatian language history whether the "H" sound existed in our language or for foreign words only or to never start words with an H sound which would have been absurd. You will learn more about this topic as you read on,...about how V.K. abandoned the official Serb Cyrillic alphabet in the early 19th century, how and why he abandoned it and then for many years edited and re-edited the Serb Cyrillic alphabet by even chopping it basically in half and changing his phonology/sound rules numerous times, contradicting his previous sound rules and how on the contrary, it is the Croatian alphabet continuity instead which followed a straight progressive and constant path for centuries, and much more as you read on.....

List of Croatian dictionaries:

 More information on history of Croatian language and script/character usage:


Here is a certified reproduction of a publication printed in Zagreb, about choices of theater plays to watch, which were being forwarded by Ljudevit Gaj and the Illyrian Movement he was a part of. (Before it became strictly the "Croatian National Revival" again). And what date does it read?...why it just happens to be from 1841 also.  And look at that, of the 9 discrepancies I circled in the Croatian column alone of the page image fakes, none of them are present in this publication. How could this be? Where did the fake 1841 alphabets from V.K.'s book disappear to? Where can we find some printed material with either of the shown alphabets? The above faked alphabets page image just may be even stranger still because the Slovenian in instances is also not correct, and he didn't even use their national name. (That's kind of a snub, ask any Slovenian. The Slovenians already experimented with 3 different alphabet versions but didn't come to a consensus yet, they had people working on it so they wouldn't have really needed Vuk Karadzic to tell them what their alphabet and characters are either. They eventually went on the accept a slightly modified version of the Croatian alphabet. See Here.)  As for the Czech (where again he uses an incorrect national language name) and the other languages columns....that's not my department.

*(When this above information, and following information below is taken into account, it sheds more light into the Serbian ultra-nationalist modus operandi mindset and political strategies throughout the remainder of the 19th century, and even right up to the present day. The politics that led to the agression on Non-Serbos in the 90's is directly related to Serbo political machinations from the early 19th century as well as the various mythomania complexes accompanying them. See HERE)

Related information: 

....Now, most people taking a brief look at these images may not have noticed any discrepancy, or if looking at just the lower fake Croatian version, dated 11 years after Ljudevit Gaj's work, may have just took it at face value, and true and thought nothing more. But hold on a second.  That may be the whole premise behind it afterall.  However, I'm good at noticing  these types of things.  For instance, when some guy in front of me (I'm writing this in Calgary at this moment)...leaves after purchasing or paying for something at some counter or desk, I see and hear the chick whisper "He's stupid" or "He's gay" or other things after he leaves. That's because he's too busy  feeling good about himself and feeling all warm and twinkly inside because he's thinking he's hot and she wants him, all this as he's tucking his receipt back into his wallet. That's about the time he turns around to wave bye, then she quickly flashes the smile and perhaps she adds a cutesy wave too.  "Please come again!" she will say sometimes. (He 's thinking the girl liked him because she was so polite and friendly to him)  Seen it lots of times around here. Or like when a good looking clean, slim Croatian guy walks into a coffee shop, the Serb chick will immediately start whispering around how "That guy, he's sick, or he's gay, or bla bla bla, whatever. "Let's go talk to that dirty dumb oaf in the corner picking his nose)  Calgary serb chicks are like that to the extreme lots of stories.  (The whole "we're 403 Serbs/Serb lands" complex  and Serbian pointy toe opanci mental disorder thing. It's that same reoccuring compex..). Anyway......

 Front cover of the 'Danica' (Morning Star) newspaper Ljudevit Gaj started up in 1835. A Pan-Slavic weekly publication using the Croatian alphabet and language.

Top and the 2 images below are of the "Brief Basics of the Croatian-Slavonic Orthography" which was published in the local Zagreb area dialect of Croatian in 1830 (You can view and read some of it Here) The immediately noticeable and very interesting point to add here is that an example of the diacritic "Ň" is used, just like in the Czech alphabet. (You see, initially Ljudevit Gaj did follow the Czech and previous Croatian literary styles of using strictly one letter/character for one sound.)  However, the diacritic "Ň" was changed to the digraph "Nj" when he introduced it into his "Danica" publication in 1836, along with "Lj" to replace his used "Ľ" and his other digraphs you will see . Other diacritics from his Croatian Orthography publications from 1830 he kept, he also kept the equivalent sound structure but decided to adopt from the Polish alphabet the letter "Ć" to represent it. At the end of the day all just minor tweaking. Looking back in hindsight however, this was a masterful genius stroke for the Croatian alphabet continuum. Why?...because, as you will see below,  a short time later his digraphs and character combinations from his "Danica" publications were accepted as the standard Croatian alphabet. Instead of being all diacritics, the various combinations of digraphs and diacritics distinguished it as unique and containing a Croatian flavour to it, that's on top of the the other consonant ligatures introduced from the previous Croatian alphabet continuum, but it importantly also differentiated it from V.K.'s brand new Serbo Cyrillic which contained no digraphs and had a different sound/phonology structure and rules and which was also...strictly Serbian Cyrillic. (All during this time and before there was no such thing as a Serb Latin script anyway and V.K was not concerned with standardizing one). The Croatian language however had been using exclusively Latin script going back to the 14th century and had been following it's own historical course in producing Croatian literature. Especially up to and including Ljudevit Gaj and the Croatian National Revival/Illyrian movement.

From the start of Vuk Karadzic's work, he was only concerned about standardizing and designing his new standard Serbo Cyrillic script alphabet only for his new Serb language which broke from the past Serbian literary tradition.  It's the only script he and Serbs used and knew. (A view of his initial newly revised Serbo Cyrillic script HERE which was following it's own course and sound sound rules, also no Latin work whatsoever and it was largely a result of chopping many Serb Cyrillic letters off from it's previous version to become closer to what Croatians were already using). This fact makes Ljudevit's diacritic and digraphic changes even more important, because it was years later when the "Serb camp" wanted to get rid of all the digraphs, and as in this instance,  change Ljudevit's eventual "Nj" back to this "Ň", "Lj" back to "Ľ" etc.  Now, if the above faked alphabets page had followed Vuk Karadzic's orthographic principles from the start, it would already have just the diactric included because V.K.'s law #1  and great orthographic holy commandment of holy orthographic holiness is absolutely no digraphs.  (The reason it doesn't include it though is obvious... there was no Serbian Latin anything script at all ever.   No J, No Y, No Lj, No Ly, No Ny, No Nj , No Š, No Sh, No Ž, No Z, No Dž, No A, B, C, Ć, Č, E, K, P, V, Z ect and so on. No nothing at all in Romanized script.  None of the above.  Only Ljudevit Gaj's Latin Croatian script which was standardized into alphabetic form with his own particular digraphic and diacritic traits, including Czech and even Polish elements, is the one that existed at that time in the Croatian lands for speaking and writing the standardized Croatian language. And it was also influenced by centuries of various Croatian literary works, poets, dictionaries, grammars and lexicographers also you will see....'s_Latin_alphabet _of_the_Croatian-Slavonic _Orthography _Ljudevit_Gaj 

List of Croatian dictionaries:

The front cover of Ljudevit Gaj's first orthography book published in 1830.  Ljudevit's formative work on standardizing the Croatian language, script and orthography was the continuation of previous centuries of Croatian Literature and written works. The Croatian language was written in "3 dialects" until this time, and at times one dialect seeping into the next affecting spelling. For a number of centuries parts of the Croatian kingdom eventually came under foreign rule and that affected spelling.  Classic Croatian "shtokavski dialect" literature from Dubrovnik writers had numerous chakavski elements, and chakavski in turn from kajkavian even. The "shtokavski dialect" was chosen partly for this reason, mainly because some of the greatest verses in Croatian were written there centuries previously, it was more free there to flourish and not be affected by other languages as well as the fact that it best suited to joining all 3 Croatian dialects into a single Croatian standard. ( (Što is just based on the way to say the word "What", Croatian has 3 historical dialects one must remember, and coincidentally Russian is Shtokavian for those not in the know, as well as Ukrainian, Belarusian, and even Bulgarian sometimes. See pronunciation vid Here. For the boys and girls out there who didn't know this or why, then check out If Ljudevit and his colleagues had not chosen the Croatian "Štokavski dialect" based on the centuries of rich "Štokavski dialect Croatian literature, he would have been ignoring numerous early works of Croatian classical renaissance literature. Like the English language disregarding Shakespeare or Italian disregarding Dante as other similar examples.  In hindsight, it was a very wise thing to do. (More on this topic as you read on)

Front cover of the Pan-Slavic Danica weekly publication from January 1838. Notice the Zagreb University stamp bearing a variation of the the Croatian Triune Kingdom coat of arms.

The front cover of "Danica Illrska" Illryian Daystar Pan-Slavic publication started by Ljudevit Gaj. The goal of this publication was foremost to promote Croatian, but eventually all Slavic nations within the Austro-Hungarian Empire of that time, South Slavic nations first. However, especially and most importantly the elevation of the Croatian language based on centuries of rich Croatian literary history to counter the use of other languages in government and schools. See Here. (The weekly publication was originally named "Croatian Daystar" in 1835,  along with his "Croatian Newspaper" but for the sake of the new Pan-Slavic movement it was changed to "Illyrian Daystar", until Ljudevit Gaj himself abolished the movement himself in 1848. (Even just using the name "lllyrian" was banned by Austria-Hungary in 1843 as being potentially too inclusive and a political threat). Importantly and the main thing again, one can see he did not write using characters the later 1841 appearing faked alphabets image is alluding to. Nothing like the faked alphabet image with the circled discrepancies at all. The only difference from this to today's Croatian alphabet was the inclusion a short time later into the standard Croatian alphabet of Ljudevit Gaj's digraphs he introduced in 1836 in his "Danica" publications. Another example of the same publication from 1836 is below. (The text accompanying the below 2 page images explains more). The only difference between his original "Croatian Orthography" book from 1830 is the later inclusion of his digraphs to replace the diacritics he originally used and minor tweaks which have continued to this day unchanged, as already explained and shown. (If one is interested in viewing digitized versions of this publication and other Croatian newspapers to view the continuum of Croatian orthography in Latin script up to and after Ljudevit Gaj click HERE)

(Before continuing, notice the name and text "Ilir iz Horvatske" (Illyrian from Croatia) in the bottom left of the publication page.  An example showing how being an Illyrian was a political Pan-Slavic movement concept, being a member of the organization and movement was not the invention of a new people or ethnonym, the throwing away and total abandonment of nationality, a political movement is not a suddenly new nationality after all.  Above is an example which throws the faked alphabets and scripts from the purported 1841 page accorded to V.K. into the garbage bin or bottom of the bird cage. Which in reality it actually is in hindsight, here's why... (Some facts which will be touched upon again later)  After his initial "Croatian Orthography" publication in 1830, it was in his later "Danica" publications in 1836 that Ljudevit Gaj introduced his digraphs to replace the equivalent diacritics he used previously in 1830. The digraphs "Lj", "Nj" being the most used and easily identifiable, as well as "Dj", "Dž". (Ljudevit Gaj's original shortform diactric only version from his "Croatian Orthography, contained the same sound structure but now with slightly different representative graphemes/characters. It's called short form version because it was diacritic only, no digraphs included at that time in his "Croatian Orthography") Other diacritics from his "Croatian Orthography" publications from 1830 he likewise kept in 1836, he also kept an equivalent sound used previously but decided to instead borrow from the Polish alphabet the letter "Ć" to represent it. Other minor fine tuning he did was when in 1838 he replaced the acute accent over the "j" to a simple tittle/dot but keeping the same original sound. Again importantly, all the minor tweaks (adjustments as to how to represent) he made in these cases the sound also "always remained exactly the same" as previously, no sounds omitted or new sounds added. These simple recorded facts from 1836-38 especially prove that the faked alphabets/scripts image on the purported V.K. page inserted into his 1841 book is one big joke and false, and basically a not very well thought out plan, just a plain ol' klepto attempt apparently. None of the circled discrepancies therefore are true or can be taken seriously and in truth they aren't by anybody. (He could have put Egyptian sounds and hieroglyphics into the Croatian column and it would have had the same validity) It must also be recalled that Pavao Ritter Vitezović from the 17th century was a big influence on Ljudevit Gaj to continue the Croatian literary tradition, as well as his ideas for a Croatian movement which would flower into a Pan-Slavic movement.  Besides the classic Renaissance masterpieces of Croatian writers from from Dubrovnik, coastal and even Slavonia regions, especially  Ivan Gundulić, among others from Croatian literary history one can also include Lovro Bračuljević who was already in the early 18th century promoting the principle "write as you speak", Bartol Kašić and Šime Budinić to name just a few, a writer and translator who in the 16th century had started to incorporate Church Slavonic along with many Czech and Polish lexemes, he had already started to use the diacritics of č and ž for the Croatian language.

Above is the 11th issue of "Danica" from 1836 which is very, very enlightening and illuminating to us as well, and shows again what was the reality of those times. In the top left is some text explaining and showing some instances of how Serbs have difficulty expressing the "H" sound in their language, and so they either replace it with the "V" sound or omit it entirely as directed by the new orthographic rules of V.K. (This topic will be elaborated on and explained more clearly later). This was the stumbling block V.K. had as well regarding the "H" sound, except he went on to make it non-existent and omitted it entirely. The text goes on to touch upon and shows an example from V.K.'s very own Serbian grammar book from 1824. I circled in red where it shows that V.K. and his supporters also always omitted the "H" sound as well in his new spelling and grammar. (One example seen above is where  the word "Prague" in Croatian is pronounced as "Praha", but V.K. in his new Serbian Cyrillic it would be pronounced and written as "Praa", *and V.K.'s Serbian grammar book was also of course importantly only written in his new Serbian Cyrillic with no equivalent "H" sound/character*. Interestingly, V.K. wrote in his very own first Serbian dictionary/grammar book that Serbs do not acknowledge or use the sound of the letter "H" in the Serbian language. as he and his supporters considered it a foreign sound not part of the Serbian language. (The Czechs also pronounce it as "Praha" btw. All Slavic languages have a letter/ligature for the "H" sound even at that time, except the Serb language it seems. Listen Here). But importantly also, as mentioned in the previous page image above, all throughout the publication and even while mentioning V.K's. very own name.... Ljudevit decided to keep the same previous sound structure but decided to instead include the Polish accute accent on the "C", that being the "Ć" character to officially represent the same sound. He did this throughout his publication for a number of issues along with his introduced digraphs of "Lj", "Dj", "Dž" and "Nj". These various Latin script ligatures expressing the same previously used sounds into the Croatian language...and introduced by him without any deletion of any sounds or ligatures/letters representing those sounds . The digraphs, diacritics and this Ć are also missing from the 1841 faked alphabets page. All this in 1836.....that's interesting. This is very different from the faked alphabets page image shown at the start of this post. After taking into account Ljudevit's added digraphs, diacritics, sound structure orthography and the grapheme/ligature continuum, this again shows us that the faked alphabets page image from 1841 is basically good for lining your cat litter box and the product of shenanigans. A child can see the contradictions, intentional errors, apparent hijinx and linguistic/orthographic tomfoolery. (In today's English vernacular we would call it "shitfuckery", "shitfuck city" or "major alphabet orthography malfunctions"). The faked alphabets image is in truth pointless and totally wrong and should rightly have big "FAKE" and "VOID" stamps on it.  I don't even know why Serb sites mention or even show it anywhere at all. None of the portrayed alphabets have ever been used by anyone at all at any time. Not even by Serbs, and more importantly never, ever by Croats. It is blatantly error filled all over the place, especially the yellow circled areas which was the whole point of this post and topic in the first place when I noticed it. As far as I'm concerned this case is closed right then and there. (You can practically hear the gavel sound). The shown 1841 page image is in truth like a fake 1841 Seiko watch that doesn't even tell time because the gears, springs and screws inside are from Timex, Bulova, Casio, TAG Heuer and Xezo watches, so it doesn't even tell you the time, it just sits there on your wrist and that's about it. (Actually it just sits there on the dresser top or in a bowl in the drawer with the decades long candied corn that nobody has or will eat either, and that's about it. When you talk to people wearing a real working watch all you can do is tell them how you have a shiny brand new watch in your dresser, with not a scratch on it.). However, let's move on and see what else there is to learn about this 1841 fake alphabets sham and the later written false and omitted facts....(I think I know now what that Ancient Aliens Debunked commentator guy felt like, systematically and factually destroying faked and false information)....

A few more examples from 1835 showing the errors from V.K.'s faked alphabets page from 1841. Firstly, this was the name of the Danica publication before the name was changed to "Danica Illyrian" (Danica Illrska) in 1836, ie: named after the Habsburg era Croatian Triune Kingdom lands which included today's regions of Slavonia and Dalmatia. Secondly, there was no situation where any letters and their sounds were omitted or discarded or added either. The question mark was only used after questions were asked, not ever used in a letter/sound column as per V.K.'s faked  alphabet columns. (Interestingly, the Croatian National Anthem lyrics were first published as "Horvatska Domovina" (Croatian Homeland) in the no. 10 "Danica" publication on March 14th, 1835. Written by poet and lyricist Antun Mihanović in the city of Rijeka and later put to music in final form, officially scored and harmonized by composer and music teacher Vatroslav Lichtenegger in Zagreb in 1861).

Handwritten page from 1833 of the lyrics for the Croatian patriotic song Još Hrvatska ni propala.  The song was to become an anthem which was sung as a Croatian/Illyrian national revival song. Latin in government and even German and Hungarian were used in higher institutions in the divided Croatian lands.  Rising Austrian and Hungarian nationalism was on the rise and a Croatian led and centered movement was needed to unite the historical Croatian lands. Croatian written works at that time were not orthographically standardized concerning a few sounds because of this political divide. This was where Ljudevit Gaj and the Croatian National Revival movement came in, resulting in Ljudevit Gaj's Standard Croatian alphabet. Contributions from fellow writers and poets as well, towards the centuries long literary continuum, transformed it later into a much wider Croatian/Slavic languages/cultural movement. See Croatian National Revival

An early supporter and colleague of Ljudevit Gaj was Croatian poet, dramatist, short story writer and literary critic Dimitrija Demeter.  He was born in Zagreb to parents who arrived from Greece.  He went on to play a pivotal role in the preservation and promotion of Croatian culture, language and of course Ljudevit Gaj's Latin Croatian alphabet within Austria-Hungary. (Stanko Vraz was just one other important early supporter of Ljudevit Gaj it should be mentioned, although born Slovenian, he enthusiastically went on to pen works and poems using strictly Croatian language and with the Croatian alphabet, even translating foreign literature into Croatian. He also had a large part to play in Ljudevit Gaj's Croatian alphabet eventually being the basis for the future Slovene alphabet). In the case of the mentioned Demeter, he also immediately went on to enthusiastically publish many works using Ljudevit Gaj's Croatian alphabet also, as well as penning historically important journals, periodicals and patriotic Croatian works in the alphabet, on top of promoting Croatian culture in the arts and politics. Above is a scanned image of his 1834 drama written work "Dramatička pokušenja" which was reprinted again in 1838 in Ljudevit Gaj's very own publishing house in Zagreb. (You can read the entire drama work Here) You will notice throughout, just like Ljudevit Gaj's publishing from 1830 and onwards, and other published works by Croatian writers during the Croatian National Revival, that Dimitrija Demeter did not use the fake highlighted alluded to characters from the purported and all mixed up Vuk Karadzic Croatian alphabet column purportedly printed in 1841 and being falsely presented to his readership as the Croatian alphabet. Not any of the presented incongruous letters and faked graphemes in the later faked alphabets page is seen or present here, in not even one publication nor at any time. (In that fake alphabets information page instead we see the Croatian graphemes/ligatures suddenly moved over to a brand spanking totally new out of nowhere and never seen or used before Serbo Latin column. It's almost the same as like a brand new all of a sudden Serbian Japanese characters column and then putting faked mixed up Japanese characters into the Japanese column, and it's just about as believable). The importance and reason behind this blatant misrepresentation will be explained more as you read on and near the end of this fake alphabets examination, and discover that it was to become a future theme and trait of many future Serbo writers/politicians and religious leaders.

 In 1833 the lyrics to "Još Hrvatska ni propala" were put to music by Ferdo Livadic (A short documentary video spot at bottom contains an example of the music) Todays Croatian National Anthem of "Our Beautiful Homeland" (Lijepa Naša Domovino) was penned by Croatian poet Antun Mihanović in the city of Rijeka and published for the very first time in 1835 in Ljudevit Gaj's updated Croatian orthography founded and inspired Pan-Slavic Illyrian Daystar weekly.

Pictured in the image above one can plainly see all of Vuk Karadzic's Serbo Latin script work. In the middle of the page, just to the left of center, one can see Vuk Karadzic's work on Serbian digraphs and diacritics which are contrary to his #1 linguistic commandment of one letter for 1 sound, especially mainly the digraphs). One can also plainly see (at the top right corner of page) as well all Latin script standardizing work for the Serbo language from the centuries even before the start of Vuk Karadzic's work. Right up until the time of Ljudevit Gaj and the Croatian National Revival.  In the middle of the page one can see all the letter "H"s scribbled over and over,  this is because Vuk Karadzic is sure that the "H" sound doesn't exist for Serbos. Here he is portrayed thinking maybe the "H" sound does exist,  just for Non-Serbos though. One thing becomes plainly evident as we move one, and that is that Vuk Karadzic believed in teleporting time machines and in reading minds. Why?  Simply because his (purportedly) faked alphabets image from 1841 was 11 years after Ljudevit Gaj's initial publications and work. He would have had to have been able to transport himself back to 1835, then back to 1830 and then read Ljudevit Gaj's mind, then zip back to 1841 and write the alphabet/characters that Ljudevit Gaj was really thinking about and wanted to really publish with. (The official script and alphabet today of the republic of Serbia is of course only his 19th century many times edited Serbo Cyrillic btw, that's the fact and truth which again proves my points). More info HERE.

*Note- If the reader is not previously familiar with Ljudevit Gaj, the Croatian National Revival and the offshoot Pan-Slavic "Illyrian movement", it can be best summarized this way. The movement was inspired with not only raising Croatian history, cultural and language history to a better position within Austria-Hungary, but also envisioned to eventually bring the Slovenes, Croats, Serbs, Montenegrins, Macedonaians and even Bulgarians, into a possible future new political framework where they could all benefit from a greater "Illyria".  Not to make "Illyrians" or a "Illyrian" ethnicity.  Not at all and nothing could be further from the truth. It was a concept aimed at preserving and eventually greater rights for Slavic languages and nations. (It's a Metonymy, not a Pars pro toto such as in the case of the ideas from the politicians in Serbia at the time, including nationalists and even V.K. himself). Many romantic writers and poets in Europe incorporated very old classical names into their works, even Croatian was at times described as Illyrian as well as Slavic. (Napolean was especially fond of the ancient names from antiquity). Likewise also, the Croats were even recorded by Byzantine and western sources as being the first Slavs to have settled in the whole of ancient Illyricum...(See for more on that) They simply chose this ancient, historic and importantly "neutral historic classical name" for the new future framework so that all the South-Slavic nations could be included into it. (Ljudevit Gaj was greatly inspired by the ideas of 17th century Croatian historian, linguist and publisher, Pavao Ritter Vitezović.  However the ideas behind Croatia Rediva of Vitezović may be correct and justified, but it would surely not be acceptable to Non-Croats from Austria/Italy to Greece in their time of the 19th century). Ljudevit Gaj and the other members of the Pan-Slavic movement knew that no Slovenian would take the name of a Croat, that a Croat would never take the name of Serb, that a Montenegrin would never take the name of Serb, that a Bulgarian would not take the name of a Serb or Croat, Macedonian or Slovenian, etc and so on

A major reason that the movement ended in such a short time and became again strictly the "Croatian National Movement" is because it's genesis was Croatian inspired, and the movement was founded on and relied greatly on much of Croatian cultural and language history from the very start. It actually was already known that the surrounding nations, although they did not exclude the possibilities,  were luke warm to the ideas of the Croatian "Illyrians", and so eventually it mainly concerned itself to Croatian events and literary, political and artistic subjects. The Croatian language was influenced especially over the centuries by Croatian literary history from Dubrovnik and coastal areas. This fact that the Croatian language there was more refined, symphonious, euphonic and dulcet greatly disinterested Serbs, especially the whole subjects of the arts and philosophies of the Renaissance and Humanism were historical epochs very foreign and strange to them, let alone the speech, customs, footwear and gastronomy. (The foreign European and Non-Serb water would be flowing into the Serbian water filled lakes and into Serbian cups, so to speak. At that time the Serbs had their first Karadordević royal dynasty which had it's beginnings from a pig farmer, not exactly blue blooded beginnings, that Serb dynasty spent much time killing their own family members as well as killing and feuding with their Obrenovic dynasty rivals. There was nobody even near to a Serb equivalent of the Russian Pyotr Alexeyevich, aka Peter the Great) Besides the writing of Croatian literature, it was during the times of this Croatian inspired Pan-Slavic movement that many classics of European literature were translated into Croatian as well. (The Revolutions of 1848 all across Europe, and it's far reaching after effects, was also a major deciding factor towards the end of the ideas behind the burgeoning Pan-Slavic movement. After the European Revolutions of 1848, Ljudevit Gaj eventually went on to officially abolish the movement himself, the Prague Slavic Congress of 1848 of that year also failed to further their ideals and goals)

The new standardized Croatian language however, was not to be based on a peasant vernacular dialect of Stokavian as was the case of the Serbian philologist Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic, but rather on the refined urban Stokavian of the former republic of Dubrovnik. Unlike Karadzic, the Croatian literary revival needed a broad scientific and political vocabulary, their centuries of introduced terms, definitions, synonyms, writing styles, etc, which would suit the needs of a progressive and developed public life.  The Croatian dialects of Dubrovnik and the southern coastal Croatian Dalmatia region suited the Croatian language perfectly in that regard, it already included elements of other Croatian dialects, and was in many ways influenced by them, it was culturally tied to them of course also. The Croatian intellectual elite in Zagreb and other Croatian cities were behind the idea also because of the classic Renaissance masterpieces and written work by Croatian writers from the coastal areas and  Dubrovnik, Ivan Gundulic being just one of them. In Dubrovnik, and southern coastal Croatian lands, through the centuries the Croatian language flourished because it was much less influenced by Italian, Hungarian and German. (Similar to the way Tuscan, which beforehand was spoken mostly by just the upper class of Florenentine society, was chosen for the standard Italian language of all of Italy) The Croatian literary elite all agreed also because it was the Croatian dialect that had the best chance at communicating to the other nations in a proposed Pan-Slavic movement, as it was comprehensible to the Slovenes and even to the Bulgarians. 

(Pan-Slavicism was becoming a popular subject in the early 19th century, especially following the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1814. As a child in the small town of Krapina, where Gaj was born, he often listened to folk tales about Lech, Čech and Rus, (See Here for more)..who, as the story goes, lived in that very locality before they set out to found the three great Slavic states. The myth quite captivated his imagination, and led him to speculate on the Slavs and their history; and certainly it made him proud of Krapina as the birthplace of the three heroes. It stimulated the boy to write a Latin version of the tale, and subsequently to translate it into German, in which language it was published as a small separate work as early as 1826. In 1828, when Andrzej Kucharski, then a newly appointed professor of the University of Warsaw, visited Croatia, Gaj accompanied him on his travels and was encouraged by him to continue on with his ideas of unifying all the Croatian people. Gaj studied at the University of Vienna and then met like-minded Croats in Budapest with similar aspirations. It was in Budapest that Gaj went on to publish the "Croatian Orthography" in his hometown local dialect. A monumental starting point achievement at the time, as all across the Austro-Hungarian empire Slavic languages were discouraged from being used in government and schools or published with. (He was 21 at the time) "Croatian Orthography" was a continuum of centuries of previous Croatian linguists and basis of future work. Arriving back in Zagreb he became leader among a circle of young people who also desired to awaken the Croatian society and develop a national ideal. Gaj had an extensive personal library containing numerous books, he had read "Books of the Polish Nation and of the Polish Pilgrimage" and published excerpts in his later Danica publications on several occasions. In Danica, No. 36 of 1843, Gaj published a complete essay on Mickiewicz's literary achievements and in No. 42 of 1843 Gaj translated a fragment of one of Mickiewicz's lectures. The "Danica" publications were a boon to Croatian literature, as many classics and books from many authors were translated and discussed as well, especially Slavic authors, importantly all in the standard Croatian language and alphabet. (This was the time of the various European Pan-Slavism movements) In 1840 Ljudevit Gaj traveled to Russia to get financial assistance for the realization of his many ideas, from the Russian Academy he received a thousand rubles and from the Slavophiles, who appreciated his ideas of promoting Slavic nations and languages within Austria-Hungary, they gave him 15 thousand rubles, various other sources in Russia, Prague and in Poland contributed to his cause as well)

The Croatian lands since the early middle ages and the time of the Croatian Kingdom, over the centuries following centuries they did not remain united under foreign rule but were split three ways. Firstly the Croatian Kingdom union with Hungary, then the Ottomans eventually occupied Bosnia, the Dalmatian interior, and even the eastern half of Slavonia for a time.  Venice ruled the Dalmatian coast (with the exception of the city-state of Dubrovnik); and the Habsburgs ruled a rump kingdom of Croatia after their election to the Croatian crown in 1527, following Hungary's annihilation by the Turkish Jihads at Mohacs.

(What kept alive a sense of common Croat identity among the separated and subjugated Croatians through the centuries, therefore, was not the Catholic religion, it was just one aspect that did play an important contributing role.  It was literature and the memory of history sustained by the intellectual elite. During the Renaissance era, Venetian-ruled Dalmatia and Dubrovnik gave birth to influential intellectuals, mostly minor aristocrats and clergymen, Jesuits especially-who kept alive the memory of Croatia and the Croatian language when they composed or translated plays and books from Italian and Latin into the vernacular. It also did not matter that the dialects of Dalmatia and Dubrovnik were different from each other. From Dubrovnik to Split to Zagreb, capital of the Habsburg-ruled north. They were all still regarded simply as dialects of Croatian. When the bishop of Modrus, had the Roman Missal printed in the vernacular in 1532, the title on the frontispiece was Misal Hrvacki (the Croatian Missal), and when Marko Marulić (1450-1524) of Split published the first known vernacular poem in Dalmatia in 1521, "Judith", he reminded on the title that it had been composed "u versih hrvacki slozena," ie: "in Croatian verses." The Dubrovnik poet Dominko Zlatarić (1555-1610) explained on the frontispiece of his 1597 translation of Sophocles' tragedy Elektra and Tasso's Aminta that it had been "iz vece tudieh jezika u Hrvacki izlozene," ie: "translated from the great foreign languages into Croatian".  No matter what any centuries later schemers or alternate psuedo-history writers in Serbia were striving towards, even Croatian literary history also shows us otherwise.)

Consequently, it was Karadzic who would be the main opponent of Ljudevit Gaj, his colleagues and their work towards Croatian unity and literary history continuum, or any Pan-Slavism at all, among the Serbs. (and even just our letter 'H' sound he found disturbing and troubling as you have seen)  V.K. refuted already in 1836 by his Serb Cyrillic written text...'Serbs all and everywhere!'.  Karadzic's plans were to use his work in collusion with the new Serbian ultra-nationalist politics as a way to an ideological permeation, an historically unfounded "Greater Serbia".  Karadzic planned to negate all Slavic people from the Greek to the Italian and Austrian borders and declare them all as 'Serbs'  (Even into large areas of Hungary, Romania, Albania, Bulgaria and elsewhere incredibly.  An ideological permeation that he retarded as intrinsic to the creation of a future 'Greater Serbia' along with his political aspirations and Serb political acquaintances, another example of the previously mentioned Pars pro toto. V.K.'s vision was interested in other Slavic peoples insofar as much as he could transform them into Serbs.....factual history, especially Croatian history, was irrelevant to his deluded self-serving Serbo-centric ideas and modus operandi. (On the other hand, the issue of Gaj's "Danica" presented on the 14th of  March in 1835 included "Horvatska domovina" (Croatian homeland), written with Gaj's updated Croatian alphabet. It was penned in the city of Rijeka and went on to become the Croatian national anthem with the full title of "Lijepa naša domovino  (Our Beautiful Homeland) and is still used today. (A Russian translation was penned by Maksim Gorki. More information can be read at this Russian siteхорватского национального возрождения)

Now back to the main point and the conundrum of the faked Croatian alphabet script, (and faked Serbian for that matter by using more logical deduction, and even non-existent Slovenian and other peculiarities)

Now, the Croatian alphabet is based upon the work of Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj (pronounced Lyoo-da-vit  Guy) and to this day is commonly referred to as Gaj's Latin alphabet. or just "Gajica")..although he was just the next in line from a continuum of centuries of Croatian writers/linguists that came before him, it was primarily designed by him in 1835 and also included his specially added digraphs. He designed it also with influence from the Czech and Polish alphabets, fellow Latin Slavic script writing languages.  It must also be recalled that Pavao Ritter Vitezović from the 17th century was a big influence on Ljudevit Gaj to continue the Croatian literary tradition, as well as his ideas for a Croatian movement which would flower into a Pan-Slavic movement.  Besides the classic Renaissance masterpieces of Croatian writers from Dubrovnik, especially  Ivan Gundulić, among others from Croatian literary history one can also include Lovro Bračuljević who was already in the early 18th century promoting the principle "write as you speak", Bartol Kašić and Šime Budinić, a writer and translator who in the 16th century had started to incorporate Church Slavonic along with many Czech and Polish lexemes, he had already started to use the diacritics of č and ž for the Croatian languageMarko Marulić (1450 –1524) and Dinko Zlatarić (1558–1613) in Dubrovnik and too many too mention here, knew very well which language it was they wrote in, as simply put by Zlataric regarding his written translated works... "iz veće tuđijeh jezika u hrvacki izložene" ie: "translated from the great foreign languages into Croatian". (Again...Serbs never even used Latin script at that time, or before)

Now, there were attempts initiated by Srb linguists and politicians (I'll call them the "Srb camp") in the years after Ljudevit Gaj's work, to change up to 4 of his Latin script characters (for starters) to their revised alternative characters.  (You'll find out why, keep reading)  However, Croatian linguists refused these attempts to completely revise his original  design to the 4 recommendations to appease the "Srb camp's" arm twisting and promises of cheap whiskey.  An agreement was eventually reached for 1 Croatian alphabetic script character when Ljudevit's character of "Dj" was replaced with "Đ".  (The reason? It was not a Serb invented Latin script character, but instead an old Roman Latin character, used especially in old medieval German even. Again, not some Serbian invented character. It still included the D, looked like a D, it was similar to the single D diacritic that Ljudevit Gaj had started out using in 1830 for the sound originally, and importantly the sound it represented stayed the same.)   This was after Ljudevit was already dead btw, and was agreed to for the sake of regional co-operation and promotion of Slavic languages in Europe during those times, especially Croatian. The Serb Cyrillic alphabet had come over the decades to abandon it's old form and Serbian system and transformed to mirror the Croatian alphabet system)  BUT, (And a big BUT here) ...then attempts to change 3 more characters. (and who knows how many more down the road?) There simply was no need to from the Croatian point of view. The Croatian linguists and scholars in Zagreb all agreed that the other 3 digraphs will remain.   The "Serb camp" wasn't to thrilled with being told no, and "Live with it", so to speak, because as for the other 3  "recommended" amendments to the Croatian Latin based alphabetic script characters?....Croatian linguists answered politely " thanks.  They stay.".  (Sort of like how during the 2 Yugoslavia's,attempts at Croatian words being ommitted and replaced with Serbian words, all in some fanciful idea of forcing the 2 languages into 1) Now, why did the "Srb camp" from down the road in Serbia want so badly to replace those specific Latin alphabetic letters?  And first only those 4 specific digraphs? At first anyway. (And especially "dž" which contained a digraph AND a diacritic?)

i>(Note- I've come across information from my sources which is not spoken about in Serbian literary circles these days, but kept sort of hush-hush. Namely, that the Serb linguist Duro Danicic, who was working in Zagreb with Croatian orthographers and literary professionals and responsible for wanting to replace the 3 remaining digraphs had jumped the gun, so to speak. After going back and forth from working in Zagreb to his Belgrade people and politicians, he had already started publishing dictionaries and some material in Serbia that already included all of his Serbian amendments, eliminating all of Ljudevit Gaj's digraphs, the letter/sound "H" and changing the Ć  and Š to a non-diacritic version. (He was a close associate and pupil of the Vuk Karadzic religion remember,  and was encouraged by other people of their camp to do so)  He was sure that the Croatians in Zagreb publishing the Croatian alphabet would accept ALL of his recommendations without a hitch.(give it to him him on a platter, and maybe even ask him if there is anything else they can give him or do for him). He even initiated publishing of a dictionary with those and other amendments in Zagreb which he thought would be approved by the Croatian intelligentsia and literary professionals. The dictionaries and material that was printed using his Serbian amendments, amendments that got rid of all the Croatian digraphs and thus were in harmony with Vuk Karadzic's holy orthographic principle of 1 to 1 transliteration, were briskly discontinued from being printed,  and purposefully not mentioned anymore in Serbian literary circles, the material published using all of his amendments were briskly destroyed. The attempt to completely"Serbianize" the Croatian Latin script alphabet had failed. Some scholars have written publications that this is the specific reason that the Croatian scholars accepted "Đ" to replace "Dj" the one time in the first place. As a reminder of what Vuk Karadzic and his linguist/political camp were attempting to do. The other digraphs stay).......

As early as 1844, the Serbian ultra-nationalist politician Ilija Garasanin in his master plan had indicated in his writings that those provinces then occupied by Turkey, the Ottoman Empire, as territory potentially susceptible to the inroads of Serbian expansion. A chance to attempt to appropriate lands and other peoples into becoming so-called Serbs. Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic on the basis of these ideas and his linguistic studies strove to justify linguistically those Greater Serbian aspirations, by asserting that the Torlakian dialect as well as the Stokavian dialects are strictly Serbian and accordingly that all those who speak these dialects are Serbs. (ie: Što meaning "what" in the Croatian language and script. Same as the Russian version Here) No matter what people or their history or religion. Stokavian is derived from Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic language, even now the official language of the Russian Orthodox church is that very Old Church Slavic. Croatians preserved it in their centuries of Glagolitic alphabet written heritage also up to the 20th century. The Serbs through the early stages of their history basically spoke Bulgarian dialects, even now speaking the "Ekavian" speech as the Bulgarians still do and which is a reminder of those centuries when Belgrade was founded by Bulgarians and populated/ruled by them, when it was even at first known as Alba Bulgarica . The Serbs for the first 5 or 6 centuries of their existence in their Balkans actually do not have 1 written document attributed to them.

Later, after 500 years of being a Turkish province and subjects, Serbs essentially had no language. They spoke mostly Turkish and communicated mostly Slavo-Turkish, then after the Turks left only in the 19th century they tried to replace Turk words with Russian and Old Church Slavonic, making some Slavo-Russian-Serb written language with a 49 Cyrilic script alphabet that was a writers, linguists and orthographer's nightmare. Needless to say, that didn't work, so V.K. took the Štokavian dialect from all his travels outside of Serbia, and decided to call it strictly Serbian. (the first major štokavian vernacular text is actually the Vatican Croatian Prayer Book from 1380, keeping in mind the already presented and yet to be presented instances of the Croatian natural literary, grammar, dictionary and Latin script history continuum. The stories and folk tales he came upon, (even in to Slovenia) he appropriated as belonging only to Serbs)

The biggest reasoning behind this later specific attempt at trying to change four of Ljudevit Gaj's Croatian Latin alphabet characters in the 19th century by his successors and sympathizers can also be simply explained like this....

Every Serb alphabet character has 1 letter/character for every sound. This is a common rule of thumb with Slavic and non-Slavic languages. However how linguists go about about designing alphabets in relation to how a sound is spelled alphabetically is another topic entirely.   But there were 4 (And still 3 in the current standardized Croatian alphabet) letters/script characters which consist of 2 letters to make the one specific sound, called a digraph.  The "Serb camp" you see,  was attempting to eradicate those 4 Croatian Alphabet letters that consisted of 2 characters,  to consist of just 1 character, (with no digraphs most importantly) just like the new Serbian cyrilic alphabet was changed into. 1 for 1.  If all 4 of those alphabetic Latin characters that were made according to Ljudevit Gaj's and the Croatian system, were to be changed to a 1 character, then comparing the 2 alphabetic systems would have in a far fetched kind of way, made it a sort of bizarro-world system equivalent, mainly because each alphabet would have 1 letter for 1 sound.  (Sort of like Superman and bizarro-Superman, with Ljudevit's Croatian alphabet being the real Superman).  In a rudimentary way of thinking then state that there is precisely 1 Cyrillic script character to every 1 Latin script character, and that it means something.(Maybe even then claiming that Serbs invented Latin and Cyrillic script).

Ljudevit's devised Latin alphabet you see, had influence from other Slavic Latin alphabets (Polish, Czech and of course Slovak) which also had alphabets that contained 2 Latin based characters to make 1 sound...digraphs. The early Croatian, Czech, (Slovak and Polish to an extent) Latin script alphabets were already very similar in many regards anyway, and not one of them was influenced by or used any Cyrilic based alphabet to be a standard or used as some kind of orthographic template, especially the Serbian one. To put it into layman's term's....Ljudevit's Croatian standard system didn't jive with Vuk Karadzic's Serbian cyrilic standard version you see, even after chopping letters left and right and bringing his new Cyrilic closer to what Latin script Slavic languages were already using.  It wasn't/isn't in harmony because of contradictory orthography rules, that goes far beyond differentiating just Latin script vis a vis Cyrillic script.  Besides all the various differences in words, their meaning, etymology, morphology, lexicology and much more,  the plain fact in the end is that the 2 alphabetic systems are orthographically in opposition, using contradictory and different principles and rules to represent phonemes, which is on top of their different scripts.  It wasn't syncronized to Vuk's desired model/rules that he used for his new Cyrilic.  The "Srb camp" didn't like that at all.  There simply was and is no 1 to 1 character transliteration. The Croatian alphabet contains digraphs.  See: LAW OF NON-CONTRADICTION

I put together an amusing short story for the boys and girls who may have had a hard time with all the terms and linguistics rules discussed up to now. Something that will get the point across in a simpler way.  Something mainly concerning  the Croatian digraphs and the letter "đ", involving Duro Danicic...(A recently arrived enthusiast from Serbia who was very enamoured with the Croatian language, dialects, grammar and dictionary history and the long Croatian literary tradition, so much so that in a short time he attempted to appropriate it for Serbia and strictly for Serbs. He also was in approval with the idea that through and from the long Croatian literary history, Serbs will finally achieve their very first dictionary in history)...and the Croatian linguists, writers and intellectuals in Zagreb.  Either way, it should give insight and help explain the above information in an all very probable scenario.  It takes place in the main meeting room of a building somewhere in Zagreb, the various Croatian linguists and writers had just adjourned a meeting with their colleague Vatroslav_Jagić...(who was not very anamoured of Danicic or his political thoughts and aspirations btw)...until a fortnight, the year is 1869....... 

Duro Danicic:  Hello, highly esteemed Croatian linguists, poets and writers!  I've just arrived from Belgrade again, my people there are starting to take interest in your Croatian Latin script alphabet. They think it could be of use to them in the future somehow, quite possibly to write the Serbian language using a Latin script. Some very fine literary past works you have there I must say.......

Croatian linguists:  That is splendid news, so glad they like it. Tip of the hat to ol' Ljudevit et all. Croatian literature is really going to take off now. Things have really turned for the better since  Mažuranić's Croatian dictionary in '42...when Sakcinski made Croatian official in the Parliament instead of Latin a year later, well, that was the feather in the cap and a sign of good things to come. So....what's this about planning now to start printing books in a Latin script as well?  How strange.  You know, I and some fellows from the University of Zagreb had thought about going there someday, perhaps read some books and such in the libraries, but alas, we don't read Serbian Cyrillic and our Turkish is subpar as well I must say. My how foolish we would have looked searching the library for history books on our King Tomislav, Trpimir or Heraclius et al. (Pulls out his spectacles while chuckling, proceeding then to the wipe the lenses clean, some other of the Croatian linguists in the room also chuckle as well......)....

Duro Danicic: (Tomislav? Heraclius? Trpimir? he thought to himself while fixing his collar)...Oh...Hehe, why yes...yes, there is a strong possibility that we may indeed,  however there is just a small problem I'd like to discuss with all you highly esteemed Croatian intellectuals, I'm afraid some changes will have to be made to your alphabet, some amendments that I think would be marvelous. Besides there being problems with some of your Croatian words that are strange to them and to even mysleft, it seems the best way to start to alleviate those issues would be to address your alphabet.. ...

Croatian linguists: How so Mr Danicic?  Please do tell....(He proceed to sit down and searches for his pipe in the pocket of his vest...)

Duro Danicic:  Well you see Dear and highly esteemed Gentlemen, As you know I had been an acquaintance of Vuk Karadzic in the past, and am close friends with his people in Belgrade.  We talked and discussed and came to the conclusion that the current state of your Croatian Latin script alphabet simply will not do for us. It's very nice and proper and fine looking, but it is not in synchronicity with our Serbian cyrillic you see.  We simply cannot transliterate precisely and correctly using Vuk's system if your nuisance digraphs are included in your alphabet system. It is quite a bothersome feature that perturbs them very much, just like ol' Vuk was perturbed with your "H" sound for quite some time. It's the issue of 1 to 2 letters and 2 to 1 letters as you know, it's all quite a conundrum and an obstacle those digraphs of yours.  As you know, Vuk strongly suggested, nay, was adamant since day 1 that only 1 character/letter be used to represent 1 sound at all times. That, my dear sirs, was his law afterall, written by his own had....

Croatian linguist #1:  I see, I see,  that is quite a predicament you have there my dear chap.  Quite a conundrum indeed, as you put it. However, how does this concern us? We have already used the alphabet for some time, in the schools and government. Please, do tell?.....

Duro Danicic: (Scratches his head, finger rolls his mustache)...Well, the way me and my people in Belgrade see it, the digraphs simply have to go for starters. The digraphs Ljudevit and his people had included into your system simply will not do for us. We....(ahem). I mean, I (ahem,hehe) ..recommend replacing your ⟨dž⟩, ⟨dj⟩, ⟨lj⟩ and ⟨nj⟩ digraphs by only the single letters  ⟨ģ⟩, ⟨đ⟩, ⟨ļ⟩ and ⟨ń⟩.  That would be ever so marvelous and splendid, it would fix things for us so to speak. 1 letter for 1 letter in both alphabets you see, just like Vuk Karadzic would have wanted and desired. Then things can proceed for us much easier.....

Croatian linguist #1:  "Well, Mr Danicic, This may be your lucky day, an acquaintance of ours from Osijek, who reads up on these kinds of events and topics quite regularly I must say, he has assured us that he recalls speaking with a friend in Germany who had read some written account in a periodical.  From the gist of it,  he recalls reading that your highly esteemed Mr Vuk had published some book of some sort or other in '41.  The friend said he came across it in a Vienna bookstore as well if memory serves me correctly.  It seems this book was very error filled in many regards and contained many inconsistencies according to the friend, and he had quite a few good chuckles upon reading it.  Nevertheless, according to our acquaintance, this book published by your Mr Vuk contained some sort of an already standardized Serbian Latin alphabet along with your Cyrillic.  Imagine that!  V.K.'s very own written Serb Latin script is just waiting for you, crying out from the bookshelf to be used and published with. What a fine and splendid day it has become afterall.  If you would like, I could telegraph my acquaintance at once and find out if any of the bookstores in Vienna may still have a copy. I must say, your prayers have surely been answered dear chap, and all troubles solved. Your lucky day indeed!  It would be no trouble at all......Jelena! Where is my pen and overcoat!?  I must leave for the post office at once!"......

Duro Danicic:  "Oh no, please don't trouble yourself Sir!  Please do sit down. I am sure your acquaintance and his friend must be mistaken. Rest assured, if our dear and highly esteemed Vuk Karadzic had done as you have insinuated, then there would be no need of me being here, not so Dear Gentlemen? We would be publishing and writing with it already and I would have no need to request these changes.  In those days there were many imposters and shady authors making up all kinds of fanciful and ludicrous stories and fables. Anything to sell a book in these modern days, you know how it is....hehe....Come!..(He proceeds to pour some more coffee into the Croatian linguists empty cup) to forget things written in some book or periodical in Vienna or elsewhere from those days......Will you accept these very fine ideas Gentlemen, that I have brought with me on this very fine day?".......

Croatian linguist #2:  "I see, I see. That is quite a sticky situation, we shall have to discuss your recommendations. I must say however, that your recommendations sound very interesting. Only those 4 alphabetic letters you say? Only those 4 specific digraphs you suggest? ...Just the 4? Well, I must say that sounds most fair and again, most interesting.  I'm sure something can be done to help your predicament...Come gentlemen, let us consider these wonderful, splendid ideas that Mr Danicic has brought with him from Belgrade"......

The group of Croatian linguists, poets, and writers proceed to leave the main meeting area and enter another large room.  There they summon the butler, who 20 minutes later arrived with a box,  a box covered with strange stars, horned animals, checkered emblems, signs and symbols on it.  They brush off some dirt and dust, then unlocked the box and opened it, pulled out some papers, some in German, some in Latin, some in Czech, Slovak and Polish, even some old dusty manuscripts in Scandinavian languages, they discuss amongst each other for a few minutes, all nod in agreement, then put the papers back into the box, close the lid, lock it and give it back to the butler who carries it away.  They enter the main meeting area to greet Mr. Danicic again.......

Visual portrayal of the meeting. The point when told that the remaining 3 digraphs must stay and reminding him that the "H" sound exists.

Croatian linguist#3:  "Splendid marvelous news my dear chap! Most wonderful indeed! We have considered your recommendations and have decided whole heartedly and without reservation to accept your proposal. We will accept ⟨đ⟩ and proceed to continue publishing books with our alphabet containing that minor character change most probably very soon, perhaps a poem or lyrics to a song in the near future.  A very nice looking Latinic letter that seems very familiar according to one of our literary history acquaintances. It is actually very close to what Ljudevit used in 1830 when he was using only diacritics, and our good writer Vitezovic before him. We see no issue or problem with going back to a dicatric "d" again.  One of our most respected colleagues assures us that Ð is actually a very apropos proposal indeed, magnificent actually and very historically symbolic, are you familiar with our early Croat history?...with Harvaða fjöllum???...aaah probably not, but rest assured though, it's quite apropos indeed. My acquintance was curious it was that you came about to decide upon such a character for the same sound? Regardless, it will still do nicely to represent that sound. Isn't that wonderful Mr Danicic?".....

Duro Danicic: (Looking a little confused, scratches his head again and then starts twisting his cap in his hands).."Hehe....Oh, had designed it myself, yes, I took proper care and consideration in designing it.... it took me a fortnight to envision it, many sleepless nights and much pondering, but finally it came to me in a dream as if heaven sent and I immediately designed and put it to paper as it appears for you now...Why yes, that is wonderful that you gentlemen like, you shall proceed to change the other 3 digraphs as well, shall you not? I have an acquaintance in Belgrade who said it would be no trouble at all to use his printing press, he said it could arrive here in no time at all with the new adjusted typeface.  My people in Belgrade assure me that after these slight modifications, we may possibly proceed to start publishing material using your alphabet and script as well.  It's what Vuk would have wanted afterall, he always said that the".....

Croatian linguist#5:  "Did you hear that gentlemen? Hey Branimir! It came to him in a dream!.. a miraculous vision by all accounts, surely the gods had a part to play, the saying goes. Perhaps it was the spirit of old Vuk talking to you from the clouds"  Turning back to Danicic and exhaling cigar smoke while reaching for his coffee cup.... "Well, my dear fellow, we are so glad that you are satisfied with our accepting your recommendation, however, we could not possibly accept all of your proposals, could we now?"  He takes 2 sips of coffee then puts the cup back onto the saucer...."We thought that all was in order after your people finally discovered that our "Hsound does indeed exist and should be written and represented in your alphabet as well, so as to not write and speak as peasants and philistines do, which by the way will come in very handy down the road believe you me, we know what we're doing and talking about, have you ever been to Prague lately?...however as for the rest of the digraphs? would be uncouth, most uncivilized and a disrespect to Ljudevit Gaj's work and to the Croatian alphabet natural continuum, even the Croatian literary continuum. All in all, the Latin script Croatian alphabet, now with your suggested edition, will still do fine as nothing soundwise changes, and we are ever so happy that we could help you in your time of need, however the other 3 editions we simply cannot do. The digraphs ol' Ljudevit added was after careful consultation with his colleagues, some who are still here today, as well as his previous literary acquaintances in Slovakia and with the Czechs and Poles also afterall. You see, they were specifically put into the "Danica" and other publications back in the 30's for a special reason and they simply must stay. We will not go around chopping our alphabet to and fro, and surely we likewise can not go around changing letters, graphemes, ligatures and orthography rules everytime someone gets a grasshopper in their bloomers or a needle in their slippers, can we now?  Just like we can not go around changing words either. Jagić assured us just the other day that the Slovenes are already taking a liking to our alphabet, then adjusting it to suit their ways and to how they see fit, according to their orthography rules, you see. We are very, extremely very sorry dear sir, I'm sure you understand. Рwill continue to do fine, however replacing the other letters we just simply can not and must not do.  A Croatian alphabet without all of Ljudevits own personal digraphs? That would be most absurd. The digraphs simply will stay. My colleagues reminded me you have continued to borrow from our previous dictionaries and grammars from over the centuries to transform your language and alphabet and it has been a tremendous boon to your new language and Cyrillic alphabet. I've heard that some Serbs have recently even begun speaking Croatian, how about that? Šulek told me last week, that as you already know, there are even cases of a recently arrived Serb sect that is writing pamphlets in Croatian in and around Split, attempting to spread preposterous ideas and even assumptions that ol' Ljudevit et al didn't even exist, which I found very strange indeed, because everyone knows we Croatians have been reading and writing and publishing, translating and defining for centuries before V.K. came along. Hmmm?...However, perhaps now your people in Belgrade could use our Croatian alphabet and then proceed to make your 3 other very important modifications that V.K. required, just like the Slovenes et al."  (One of the Croatian linguists in the back of the room spoke out..."We can even write some poems and sonnets for you if you would like, something about fine bossomed mermaids, mountains, moon filled summer nights and hay filled rolling fields")..."Think of it, then both of your alphabets would be in unison as you would like instead of contradicting each other with separate law defying orthographic rules. You could edit as the Slovenes did and make a genuine authentic V.K. law approved digraph free version. You could mix and match and edit and even get rid of the "H" sound that he so utterly despised and didn't believe in. Oh how Vuk would be dancing in his grave with happiness, dancing in the heavens with glee and joy then I'm sure. He he he. Neither would contain digraphs, that there would be marvelous and splendid, not so?  What say you Mr Danic? Your dream is only a hop, skip and a jump away ...I am sure you will have a digraph-free Serbian Latin script to publish with in no time at all...only 3 more to go now after all, what a fine dream coming true for you". Congratulations on your new historic Serbian literary epoch....However, if you prefer, I could still telegraph my colleague in Vienna and find you a copy of V.K.'s book with his versions of alphabets from '41, did I mention it already had a Serbian Cyrillic and Latin alphabet within written by V.K himself? Did I mention that? Shall I print some copies for you....

Duro Danicic: (Puts his hat back on his head, forces a smile)  "Hehe..why..why yes, of course...perhaps I shall do that.  I'm sure my people in Belgrade will take that into consideration, afterall, Vuk would have wanted it that way....Vuk was always adamant from the start on this topic as you know, Vuk always said that he didn't want to have any of those..........."

Croatian linguist #2:......(Politely cutting off Mr. Danicic with his outstretched hand and nonchalant expression and yawning, he and the whole room were hungry now after all)....."Yes, yes..splendid! All is well again. Splendid indeed!...sve u redu! fantastično! svaka čast! Gladan sam kao Hajduk! All this modifying and changing and editing and omitting and re-editing and agreeing has given me a very large appetite. Butler! Please help Mr Danicic to his carriage, he is off to Belgrade to give his people great and wonderful news, they are now well under way to having their very own Serbian Latin alphabet very soon. "Please dress warmly for your train trip to Belgrade Mr. Danicic, it can get chilly at night"....Fellow gentlemen, what say rounds of Ćevapi, cheese and beef burek pies and some cold drafts of beer to wash them all down, perhaps some big slices of cake for desert. Where is my overcoat? I starve!"  (The Croatian linguists proceed to gather their hats and coats and go for dinner, Katarina was making her special čuspajz, kobasice i svježi kruh that afternoon, perhaps even some hladno pivo, they were very hungry after all....)

The standard Croatian Latin script alphabet still containing 3 examples of 2 letters forming 1 alphabetic sound/phoneme. This is called a Di graph. Serbian cyrillic contains not even 1 digraph or diacritic and so therefore neither should any Latin script version either according to V.K.s very own orthographic law. For transliterating purposes digraphs are highly discouraged from being used. ("Dž" is even an example of a digraph AND a diacritic used at once to make a sound/phoneme). A learned linguist would know the problems of transliterating Cyrillic into Romanized digraphs and not even attempt to do so in a million years. This is precisely the reason Vuk Karadzic's circle tried to eliminate them all years later. Because Ljudevit Gaj and the Croatian linguists knew this, this is precisely the reason they put them in the Croatian alphabet in the first place. Ljudevit introduced his digraphs into his "Danica" publication in 1835. The same sound as from his previous "Croatian Orthography" in 1830, but replacing diacritics with his digraphs. They weren't concerned with how the Croatian Latin script alphabet transliterated with any cyrillic script alphabet because we Croatians use only our one Latin script alphabet with the centuries of natural and historical continuity. That's the only one we need to read and write with.

Thankfully, the people hung up on this kind of idea, which escalated to the point of even attempting to morph the 2 languages into 1 failed miserably. (Attempting to morph languages in those days was a passing fancy of some)  It was an offshoot of the romantic Pan-Slavic theme of those days, but perhaps a little too far fetched. These kinds of ideas were partly based on the musings of writer Jan Kollar who tried to promote an all encompassing "Czechoslovak" language. (Some things were just never meant to be not matter how much you try, just like New Coke or bellbottom jeans)  Thankfully, because today we do have the Croatian, Slovak, Czech, Ukrainian, Russian, Macedonian, Belorusian, Bulgarian etc languages. (This particular idea wasn't taken too seriously by other Slovak and Czech scholars and linguists back then either, perhaps in a perfect world though, where maybe 1 alphabet and 1 language was to be used for all Slavic speaking peoples from Russia to Macedonia to the Adriatic sea to Poland. It was attempted in communist Yugoslavia as well, as a way of attempting to forge 1 single Yugoslav nationality and language, but this failed miserably also. This isn't really surprising at all though, because right from the start of Vuk's work, he was trying to find a way (with prodding  from Srb politicians, writers of Greater Serbia pamphlets, radicals and even the Serb church) to magically turn all peoples inhabiting that part of Europe into some mystical esoteric "Srb race".  In this instance trying to do it using his out of the blue new vastly reformed Cyrillic alphabet and newly made Serbian language.  Where they all walk on Serbian grass, drinking Serbian milk by the Serbian sea telling Serbian jokes eating Serbian jam from Serbian strawberries. It gets on......

Statue of Lj udevit Gaj that I took in Zagreb on my trip to Croatia this past summer.  His image is found all over Croatia, especially as statues in cities and towns. Many schools, cultural societies buildings, squares and streets as well. (Not surprisingly however, Gaj's name is being stricken in Serbia these days, streets formerly named in his honour because of his contribution to the Croatian Štokavian dialect standard work in the Croatian language and Latin script alphabet, have been renamed and there's no mention of him anywhere. Streets also previously named even after Slovenian writers such as France Prešeren and Ivan Cankar have been renamed at the urging of Serbian Church leaders. Full story: HERE. Click image for more detail.

Back to Gaj's Croatian Latin Alphabet,  the Latin characters Ljudevit  devised, basing it closely to Czech and (and even Polish) orthography as well, in the end suited him and the Croatian language just fine, and Latin script had already strictly been in use for hundreds of years anyway.  All he did, as has been shown, was some fine tuning andtweaking towards a final complete Standard Croatian Latin script alphabet, that importantly and geniusly included digraphs, diacritics, and even digraphs and diacritics all at once. (The first Croatian dictionary and grammar date from the 16th and 17th century respectively btw). Croatia's literary history had already stretched back to the 14th century overwhelmingly using Latin script.  Penning written classics in the Stokavian dialect, and Stokavian with Cakavian and even at times Kajkavian influences.

So it seems apparently that about 6 years later, after Ljudevit's Croatian standardizing published works from 1830 to 1838 especially, according to the top faked page  purportedly dated 1841 (But even before that actually like I said) in an attempt to totally obliterate Ljudevit's work and existence, and in effect Croatian history and Croatian literary history,  it is assumed written material was being used by the "Serb camp" that in effect attempted to do just that. The images used above of this supposed scholarly historical work of European scripts are contradictory, without foundation and worth 2 looks I recommend. It is being used as subterfuge these days on the Wikipedia Serbian Cyrilic alphabet site, and was included in the Serb propaganda article in the Serb daily that I inadvertently stumbled upon.  It's gets better though...hold may wonder why is it then that the Serbian language isn't using that alphabet in the purported 11 years later 1841 page image now.  Because apparently V.K, apparently, already made an alphabet for his new Serb language, apparently, including even a Serbian Latin script, apparently. (The other languages and scripts doesn't concern me or us here, because we had Ljudevit Gaj et al doing there own thing)  What is of interest here is his Latin Serbian script from 1841 apparently ........

Did he really write Anton Chekov's "The Cherry Orchard"? (This is the image of Vuk Karadzic from the Serbian article I came across which is actually drawn by a Serbian artist btw) Many linguistic scholars believe there really is no such  thing as a Serbo language. That the Serbian language was just a renamed and imported Croatian.  On top of that also even a local variety used in Ottoman empire ruled Bosnia.  A new "Turkish- Bosnian vernacular" so to speak, infused with a myriad of Turkish rooted and/or Turkish loan words to go along with the Turkish religion.  The first modern dictionary of that variation of today's so-called Bosnian language was written by Muhamed Hevaija Uskufija - - in 1631. (One could correctly however, simply call it a new Turkishized version of the Croatian language, based heavily on preceding Croatian literary works as well as the first Croatian grammar by Bartol Kašić in 1604) There are 4 copies of this dictionary preserved. One of them is stored in the university library in Uppsala (Sweden).  It is believed that 197 years later that this dictionary was copied and  then renamed by Vuk Karadzic as his new reformed Serbian language to be used with his new reformed Serbian cyrillic script.... [It is believed in many circles that his surname is of Turkish origin as well, a Slavicized Turkish surname] ...and he then imported the dictionary into Serbia for use. Before this import Serbs in Serbia spoke a patched together "Slavo-Serbski" and "Torlakian" dialect of the Bulgarian language with Russian phonetic elements also included as well.   If not for this dictionary and also for the many Croatian language dictionaries and grammars and especially old written works in the "Štokavian" dialect, Vuk would have had absolutely nothing to base his presto "new Serbian language" on. His life work consisted of spending time everywhere BUT in Serbia developing his new alphabet, taking from Croatian literature here and there, from it's past dictionaries and grammars and trying to patchwork something into his all of a sudden new Serbian language and alphabet. He even went so far as to pass off to western publishers of his first books Croatian stories and poetry from areas populated by Croats and telling them that they were Serb stories etc.  Writers, linguists, publishers, common people and perhaps the biggest insult, the Serbian church itself, the epitome of religio-Serb culture fusion, did not want his newly made alphabet at all. It was deemed as strange, odd,  foreign and western. The Serbian church hierarchy considered Vuk Karadzic as a western Habsburg spy and of attempting to infect Serb Byzantine based culture and literature with foreign western ideals and influences, and that was just his Serbo Cyrillic reforms.   All during this time however,  and centuries before,  the Croatian language, literature and accompanying dictionary and grammar publications followed it's own natural course and stayed true to it's linguistic continuity from Proto-Croatian/Slavic beginnings without any Turkish influence. Croatia and the Croatian language was the mainstay and bulwark of true Slavic based Croatian language. This has also been the norm especially since Croatian independence. Examples:

Because the Serbian written language of the early 19th century contained so many words connected to the Serbian orthodox church , including a large number from the Russian church language, also because of influence from the Bulgarian and Torlakian accent, (and many Turkisms) Serbian was almost considered closer to Bulgarian than to Croatian. It was inaccessible to all but the most elite strata of the population and actually just a mixed hybrid of Slavo-serb, Russian, Old Church Slavonic and Torlakian. Serbian church considered his new endeavor as a foreign tongue. All of his work was based upon speaking patterns found outside of Serbia. His aim was not so much for Serbs to speak and write more uniformly, but rather he wanted Serbs and Serbia to speak and write like him. His borrowed phrase of "Write as you speak" was actually a call for Serbs to "Write as I speak".  For this he had to start from scratch, which of course meant a first time ever Serbian dictionary, and which relied heavily on the first Croatian grammar by Bartol Kašić in1604  (I'm not sure if there is even one other example in the world of a language, speech patterns and dictionary/grammar history etc, that was produced and efforts exerted at standardization based on so much that what was to be found outside of the country and among other nations and speakers, using other peoples dictionaries and grammars and literary history (Croatian) to quickly mix it with other various influences such as Turkish to then invent his new one. V.K. was known to have spent hardly any time in Orthodox and Cyrillic Serbia or any other Orthodox/Cyrillic Slavic nation whatsoever, and was not the least bit interested in them, their alphabets, orthography or literary history)

Serbian clergy considered him an Habsburg Catholic spy for his work, especially after replacing the Serbian orthodox spelling with the untrusted Roman Catholic latin letter J. and then eventually adding H, which he did because of the Croatian writers and language has always used the sound in the preceding centuries, long before even published material was starting to be printed. (The inclusion of this Latin ligature "J" into his new Serb Cyrillic made the Serb clergy especially irate, as Serbian clergy many times through the centuries preferred for Serb leaders to hold discussions and work with the occupying Ottoman Turks rather than the western devil Catholic nations) This is also the reason why in 1813 he produced a book of "South Slavic folk songs" based on all his travels, with commentaries, then only later he renamed it "Serbian folksongs"  (There are also instances of taking Albanian songs and folk stories and then calling them Serbian as well, like shown at the beginning of this post) The political ideals and deception was beginning to become evident from that point, his actions and of his subsequent supporters in Serbia show that they needed another peoples language, literary history and alphabet system to call their own. To discard and leave behind their literary history and Serbian orthography and take another one.

The Croatian romantisized IIyrian movement of Ljudevit Gaj and the Croatian liguistic schools was more concerned with not making a new language and brand new script, about cutting off a large segment off of it and making new sounds, getting rid of sounds, but rather how best to continue the natural Croatian literary continuum, considering it's very long natural evolution over the preceeding thousand years. To fine tune the Croatian standard, mainly how best to represent the sounds, so as to encompass speaking patterns that contained influences of all 3 of our dialects. The centuries long rich literary history of southern Croatia did just that. Southern Croatian regions, especially from Dubrovnik, where Croatian Renaissance masterpieces were penned over the centuries was a jewel of Croatian literature. The modern Croatian standard language is a continuous outgrowth of more than nine hundred years of literature written in a mixture of Croatian Old Church Slavonic and the vernacular language. Dalmation Croatia where the very first Croatian states and realms were founded would become the basis, and Dubrovnik was the Croatian Stratford-upon-Avon and Florence.

If we narrow out the subject, Croatian Church Slavonic had been abandoned by the mid-1400s, and Croatian "purely" vernacular literature has been in existence for more than five centuries The final obstacle to the unified Croatian literary language (based on celebrated vernacular Croatian Troubadour, Renaissance and Baroque -- acronym TRB) literature (ca. 1490 to ca. 1670) from Dalmatia, Dubrovnik and Boka Kotorska was surmounted by Croatian national awakener Ljudevit Gaj's standardization of Latin scriptory norm in 1830–1850s. The standardization of Croatian language can be traced back to the first Croatian dictionary (Faust Vrančić: Dictionarium quinque nobilissimarum Europae linguarum—Latinae, Italicae, Germanicae, Dalmatiae et Ungaricae, Venice 1595) and first Croatian grammar (Bartol Kašić: Institutionum linguae illyricae libri duo, Rome 1604). Interestingly enough, the language of Jesuit Kašić's translation of the Bible (Old and New Testament, 1622-1636; unpublished until 2000) in the Croatian štokavian-ijekavian dialect (the ornate style of the Dubrovnik Renaissance literature) is as close to the contemporary standard Croatian language (problems of orthography apart) as are French of Montaigne's "Essays" or King James Bible English to their respective successors—modern standard languages.

To show what I mean, here's just a few examples of Serbian words with the same pronunciation and meaning in the Turkish language that are NOT standard Croatian language nor have hey ever been. Firstly using the Croatian alphabet that Serbs use and then in English. There are also numerous instances of "False friends" between many Croatian and Serbian words. Even current examples like Belgrade's Kalemegdan Park, or Stambo Gate of their Nis Fortress show the Turkishness that has permeated Serbian culture, and so language as well for centuries.....

astal- table
alva -some kind of Turkish delights
kafana- some kind of bars,caffe
begenisati- to love somebody
belaj- bad luck, evil
gajtan- wire
đuvegija- boy for marriage
dušman- enemy
jarak- canal, hole, gap
jok- no
jatagan- some kind of weapon
kalabaluk- crowd, mob, heap
konak- some kind of hotel, room for sleep
komšija- neighbour
kurtalisati- save, free oneself
melem- some kind of nature pills
plajvaz- pen
pendžer- window
perišan- some kind of jewelry for woman
sokak- street
džakati- speaking loud
avlija- courtyard
bread- ekmek
badava- gratis, free
gurabije- some kind of cakes
ratluk- Turkish delights
čaršav- linen, bed-sheets
zejtin- oil for cooking
kapija- fence enclosure
bostan- watermelon
džem- jam
peškir- towel
ćilim- carpet
čorba- soup

Croatian language also has different names for the months of the year I should quickly note, derived from extremely old Croatian words and first published in 1640 in the first Croatian grammar, and they are still used today in the Croatian standard. (just an extra bonus cool piece of information for the reader to know, see Croatian_months for more about that)

No mention of Ljudevit Gaj whatsoever in the faked alphabets page image, only the taken Croatian ligatures and then substituted characters all over the place.   Rather, his work (And the standard Croatian Latin script alphabet) is erroneously and with blatant subterfuge portrayed as some other version.  A faked standard Croatian alphabet. (With 'Y' replacing Ljudevit's standardized 'J',  omitting his 'Š',  replacing the "S" with the Hungarian 'SZ' characters and other strange editions and questionable questionables, namely obvious errors and misrepresentations. Playing a sort of script "Pea in shell game".  But possibly one of the most interesting of all the strange things in all this may even be accepting/not accepting the letter 'H' which in Serbian was "X", as part of his new Serb Cyrillic alphabet, WHY?... Well, because you see,  according to Vuk Karadzic's initial rules, for a Serb the "H" sound (Serb letter"X")  was actually non-existent. V.K. and his later colleagues stated emphatically that the Serbian language does not acknowledge the letter "H", it's sound acoustics and so will never use it in writing either.  His first dictionary did not include the sound of "H" (X)  Even after persuading from his Serbian camp supporters during the 2nd edition of his first Serbian dictionary, the "H" sound (Serbian X) was eventually added, however no words were to be found in the whole dictionary that started with the "H" sound.  Now what's all this no "H" sound business you may ask?........

.....Well, I'll try to explain as simply as possible. Because you see, according to Vuk Karadzic's theology, Srbs don't use or acknowledge the letter "H" because they don't acknowledge the "H" sound when speaking. Karadzic's belief and rule was that a Serb does not use the voiceless pharyngeal fricative "H". (A sound similar to the ending in the Irish and Scottish Gaelic word "Loch")  a Srb however will not have a letter for that sound or a letter expressing "H" accoustic properties. This was his rule. He said Serbs don't use it even in writing. His first Serbian dictionary had absolutely no words with an "H" sound, which in Serbian Cyrillic is "X". It's very ironic and a reverse example that the word Christ in Serbian is pronounced and written as "Hrist", a sound or letter that does not exist, oh well call him

after the 2nd edition of his 1st Serbian dictionary did he include words which included that sound at all, only for foreign words though. AND EVEN THEN his Serbian dictionary had absolutely NO WORDS STARTING WITH THE CYRILLIC LETTER "X" (H sound)  Sometime down the road he changed his rule so that if it is a foreign word, then an "X", (H sound) will be added.  (Example: Xrvatska instead of Hrvatska, or the name of the Croatian island of Hvar, this would then extend naturally to all Latin script foreign language words that contain that sound..."Loch" would then be Lox, ...."Hue" would be Xue, German "Dicht" would be Dixt,...Polish "Hiacynt" would be Xiacynt...Alowe'en would be Xallowe'en...and many other scenarios) After more revisions of his new Srb alphabet he eventually many years later did accept the H in many instances though, and it is used today, (Or do they? Because who the Hell knows?  Vuk Karadzic years later eventually  puts the Cyrillic letter "X" in the Serb column and in the equivalent Latin letter puts an "H?" It seems he still was not sure. (Russians knew that "X" exists, Listen HereThis added even more nail biting suspense and confusion about whether the "H" sound exists or not and what sound it does or does not make if it is a sound in the first place. Seriously, I really don't even care whether they do or not, Croatians always knew that sound existed and have always used it, our very ethnonym "Hrvatska/Hrvati"  (Croatia/Croats) has included  the "H" sound since the very beginning of our existence See here for more information: Serbian Letter X

(Important sidenote - Here is where I have to give a little background about this no "H" sound business. Czech, Slovak Polish and other languages use the digraph Ch for the voiceless velar fricative "X", (H sound) Russians also use the Cyrillic "X".  This stumbling block of Serbian language is directly related to the Serbian "Torlakian" language, which many linguists believe to actually be a Bulgarian dialect, some think it is the actual Serb language. (This is why Vuk Karadzic had issues about if or when or when/when not to use it, in Serbian, and in foreign words. At the start of his work V.K. was adamant for years that the "H" sound did NOT exist in the Serbian language, hence he did NOT include the "H" sound Cyrillic equivalent into his new Serb Cyrillic alphabet work.  It's a transitional Bulgarian dialect of the South Slavic languages continuum. A dialect where unlike other South Slavic languages, it does not recognize or use the the "H" sound. It's very strange however that even today Serbs say "Hrist" for the word "Christ", unlike the Croatian version of "Krist", how strange is that? Even the Russians, Ukrainians etc, believed in the voiceless velar fricative "H"sound, so I don't know what was going on in ol' V.K's noggin. Too much homemade hooch perhaps?)  Source:

Does the "H" sound exist?...In Croatian literary and alphabet history it always has...and still does.....

Even after cutting the Serb alphabet in half in 1818, V.K.'s earliest (and the very first Serb dictionary btw, first Serbian dictionary with his newly constructed Serb cyrillic alphabet actually, more about the very first one later) published in 1818 consisted of only his brand new Serb cyrillic alphabet and no H sound or H cyrillic letter. V.K. made it clear from the start of his work that Serbs do not believe in or use the H sound and that it's not part of Serbian language. However, the Croatian alphabet and literary history has always accepted and used the H sound. (V.K.'s 1818 dictionary excerpt on the left, and his 1852 suddenly updated dictionary on the right where he eventually changed his mind and the "H" sound did exist finally. However ONLY as an "X" and ONLY in cyrillic throughout the whole dictionary naturally)

This visual aid regarding this no "H" business in the Serbian language and Cyrillic alphabet is also very important in this alphabets continuity examination, more important than it seems at first glance. Just one of many facts you will learn, and not just because of the lack of the letter "H" in the way a word can be spelled, or a differentiation in the way a sound can be portrayed and expressed as an alphabetic letter, but more importantly it is the total absence and non-existence of the very "H" sound phoneme in the Srb speech right from the start according to V.K.'s new Srb Cyrillic alphabet.  Recall the previous example from the "Danica" publication when they were discussing this very fact of the Serb language not acknowledging any "H" sound, according to V.K.'s very own rules. On the left is an excerpt from the 1818 Vuk Karadzic Serbian dictionary (again, all Cryrillic btw of course) On the right is his Serbian dictionary from 1852, from where I used the comparative languages/script image previously containing the proper Croatian script/column. You will notice, take just the word Hajduk as the one example. (After which the Croatian soccer team HNK Hajduk Split are named after also)  As previously shown, V.K.'s first Serbian dictionary did not have any words that included an "H" sound equivalent Cyrillic letter at all. Nowhere throughout the dictionary, not one word. In just the one above example we see the word "Ajduk" (Aјдук in Cyrillic). V.K. and his colleagues always believed that Serbs don't acknowledge or use the letter "H" sound. To them it was non-existent in the Srb language. Years later we see in his 1852 Serbian dictionary (all still just Cyrillic again of course) after more editions and modifications through the years, it was eventually spelled as "Hajduk" (Хајдук in Serbian). This is quite a change in this situation and V.K.'s brand new Serbian Cyrillic alphabet making endeavors. It is the addition of a whole new previously unrecognized sound and it's ligature in his new Serb Cyrillic alphabet, not only just a spelling adjustment or the way to represent a sound. From originally being non-existent, to existing sometimes but only for foreign words, to eventually existing in Serbian but never, ever starting words with the letter "H", to years later finally existing and permissible to start a word with "H" and elsewhere wherever the word calls for it. Can you imagine how stupid one would have sounded laughing like this. I think it sounds much better like this. Listen and compare for yourselves. They'd probably sound like these people. Now they can properly pronounce "Prague" like the Czechs, Croats and other Slavs do, as Praha. Refer to the "Danica" page image from 1836 near the top of this post with more detailed explanation.

Here's an example from the times which again clearly shows this very obvious discrepancy and sheds more light on the origins of different alphabets and corresponding literary history also. Above we see the front cover of a Матица српска (Matica Srpska) Yearbook publication from 1832. (I should note that the title meaning is something similar to Serbian Queen Bee, and also that from those 19th century times there were other national and national language Matica printed publications and that are existing still even today, but with Matica also having meanings more similar to Mother Source/Matrix. (Matica Česká, Matica Hrvatska, Matica Slovenská, Matice Moravská, Hałycko-Ruska Matyca, Slovenska Matica, Macierz Polska, Matica Slezská formed by Czech lands patriots during the former Austrian Silesia and today the Czech Silesia), they were and are an association of cultural, scientific-educational and literary publications with each issue focused on the preservation and promotion of the language, identity, cultural heritage and literary history of the nation. Each edition was published in the nation's corresponding lands within the Austro-Hungarian empire period in the 19th century, except the Serb version which was published in Hungary and moved to Serbia in 1864. Today there is also a Матица црногорска/Matica Montenegro since 1993) However, in this case we see the same very obvious discrepancies, this Матица српска publication from 1832 is of course only using V.K.'s newly devised post-revisions Serbian cyrillic alphabet from 1818, but just like his new dictionary from 1818 seen above previously there is no cyrillic "X" - "H" letter/sound present at all. (I checked around at other page examples from the era and it's the same issue.) The new V.K. Serbian cyrillic alphabet is the only alphabet and script used and the "H" sound is omitted throughout as shown. As explained and shown, only after 1852 did V.K. once again change his mind and edit his alphabet again to include the "H" sound but again...only in cyrillic as the "X" letter, as well as gotten rid of any remaining diacritics such as the Russian stylized й seen above. (It was very important to V.K. that his newly devised Serb cyrillic alphabet contain absolutely no digraphs or diacritics either as well as no "H" sound/letter...the cyrillic "X") These types of national, cultural, scientific-educational and literary publications were and still are, extremely important literary publications in the the nation's identity and self-determination efforts, so it was important also, obviously, that the nation's cherished alphabet and corresponding script also be used to publish it with, it just makes literary sense to use your civilizational historical alphabet. (Coincidentally, this Serbian Матица српска version publication was also used regularly by political and Serb church religious leaders as a tool for extreme nationalist propaganda in the 19th century and later, such as various other Non-Serbs not existing and similar pseudohistory/political/territorial claim fables, during the 90's especially it was a Serb church and political mouthpiece for condoning and promoting ethnic cleansing and waging a Serb jihad war. Coincidentally again the first thing their soldiers coming from Serbia  did after cleansing a village or small town was to immediately tear down and destroy the Latin script Croatian alphabet signs and replace them with Serbian cyrillic signs, a fact very connected to this topic actually.) Survey says: just like the Croatian editions and the Czech, Polish, Slovenian and other national editions also, the Serbian Матица српска also ipso facto used their very own alphabets and cyrillic letter/characters script to publish with, there's no arguing with that fact . (It gets better as you read on though and see the original Serb cyrillic alphabet source from where V.K. started from and how it got only to just where it was at this above seen point. When compared to the unwavering continuous Croatian alphabet and civilizational literary tradition up to Ljudevit Gaj and today, it's like comparing apples and orseradish...I mean Horseradish.

That's right boys and girls, the Croatian letter "H" is used to pronounce many Croatian words and even many other languages words like Hallowe'en. Listen here, as well as of course Hrvatska. It is one of the 30 sounds in the Croatian language and alphabet that have always existed.

(To make it even more clear in this overall alphabet and "H" sound scenario, above we see the modern Russian alphabet. The Russian cyrillic letter "X" is the equivalent of the Croatian "H" sound. It represents the voiceless velar fricative /X/ which is actually the equivalent of "H" in many Slavic and even European languages (Listen again Here). This is similar also to the German word example of "ach" (Listen Here). This is the sound that the Serb linguist V.K. repeatedly stated and wrote that it does not exist in the Serbian language and that Serbs never pronounce it at all. (Remember, V.K. made this point very clear when he didn't include this sound of the Cyrillic "X" character in any of his earliest publications or even his first Serb Cyrillic dictionary, seen above and the entire dictionary can be viewed later, this is because he was adamant that the "H" sound simply did NOT exist in the Serbian language, see previous example. Yet, this sound is based on Old Church Slavonic (OCS) which was the first Slavic literary language for all Slavic languages/peoples since the 9th century, it is the literary language that all modern day Slavic languages branched from so we know it existed from the start. (During it's construction in the 9th century the differences between the various Slavic languages were minor. OCS was likewise of course originally included in Croatian Glagolitic, (example below) then also later in the first Cyrillic alphabets as well as all the Slavic languages of Europe that use Latin script. (Slavic language alphabets that use Latin script were influenced by OCS and Latin script/sound rules. Only the Croatian vernacular literary tradition nearly matches Church Slavonic in age. It began with the Vinodol Codex in 1288 and continued through the Croatian Renaissance until the codifications of the Croatian language and alphabet in 1830-35) It is in all these scenarios the equivalent of the "H" sound/letter. (Croatians even used it already in Latin script as an "H" in the 10th century stone inscription of Croatian King Stephen Drzislav. The extremely long tradition of this sound is shown again in Nestor's Primary Chronicle from the 11th century, because that work was written in that early Old Church Slavonic, but in the Cyrillic script of Kievan Rus'. Hence, in the original text of that important chronicle the word for Croats was written by Nestor as "Хoървати", which translated into Latin script phonetically is "Horvati". (Listen at the link) Synopsis: Croats and other Slavic languages have used, continue to use and have always known that the "H" sound exists without any question whatsoever. The Croatian alphabet simply included and includes the "H" sound as where Serbian did NOT according to V.K.. (See also for more about Croats in early Kievan Rus' history)

Hoooray, I exist!!!

There are 30 sounds and 30 corresponding Latin script alphabet letters (including the digraphs as well as diacritics added by Ljudevit Gaj as already shown) in the Croatian alphabet, and the "H" sound has always been one of them since the very beginning. Without the "H" sound/letter we would then have only 29 letters/sounds. The Croatian language and alphabet at no time ever used a digraph of "?" or "H?" as in H?rvatska or H?ajduk or ?amburger, this is an alphabetical fact. Just dance away "H guy" and keep doing your thing because without a doubt you exist.

   ...Again, we see an mage of the Baška tablet (Bašćanska ploča) written in Croatian recension Glagolitic script, circa 1080-1100. The historic writing and first Croatian and Slavic alphabet on the historic tablet mentions the Croatian King Zvonimir. Interestingly, highlighted in blue is the original Glagolithic transliterated into Latin script: "Zъvъnim[i]rъ Kralъ Hrъvatъskъï."  id est: "Zvonimir the Croatian King." In Croatian: "Zvonimir Kralj Hrvatski." (Glagolitic script is unicase, ie: no distinction between an upper or lower case), and incredibly it was written using the Old Church Slavonic soundless Glagolitic hard sign Ⱏ  known only later as the Cyrillic ъ in the spelling. (a Glagolitic letter with no sound or phonetic value of its own but which was used purely as an orthographic break device between more important consonants, which made the word "Croatian" spelled and pronounced in our language EXACTLY THE SAME AS IT IS TODAY..."HRVATSKI")

...From the 10th century circa. 969, an extremely rare and remarkable middle ages gem in stone literally, the Croatian ethnonym written in Latin which is closer to the Croatian pronunciation version instead of the Latinization rules in use up to that time on other Croatian royal inscriptions, a fusion of Latin and the sound rules found in Croatian and in other Slavic languages. (Since even before the beginning of written sources, it is known that a phonological process took place among Russians, Slovaks, Czechs, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Slovenes, Croats and the vast majority of Slavdom languages, which left the voiceless velar stop /k/ and the voiceless velar fricative /x/ unaffected. ['Хoървати/Horvati' according to Nestor's Primary Chronicle]. This also helps explain why /k/ (Latin "c") was usually included according to the Latin spelling/pronunciation rules)...

 ...This above example from 969 regarding the Croatian King Stephen Držislav then clearly proves that the Croatian ethnonym in our language is "Hrvat" and that when properly Latinized it is "Croat." It is a rare amalgam example proving that they are both the same name/ethnonym. "Croat" being etymologically derived from the much older "Hrvat." From this it is plain to see that Latinized "Croat" and "Hroat" both ultimately derive from the word "Hrvat" and having the same ethnic meaning. In this particular examination it also proves that Croats used the "H" sound and naturally knew it existed for quite some time.

Detail from a publication for the Society "Ljudevit Gaj" in the city of Rijeka in 1910.

What does all this mean in the end though? Quite simple, and obvious. That because Ljudevit Gaj refused to revise the Croatian Latin script based alphabet to their whims and edits, Serb politicians, scholars and radicals ("Srb camp") tried again years later, and then decided to take it anyway, (again, a mixed up orthographically erratic version containing and omitting various different characters as well as accepting digraphs where none existed, digraphs from foreign various languages ) publish it and call it Serbian, and then falsely credit Ljudevit Gaj and Croatians also with some fake made up standardized version that was not Ljudevit's standardized version and that was not ever officially Croatian script. It also was most definitiely not the Croatian standard (Or in this case, not even credit Ljudevit at all or Croatian literary history and writers for that matter) Ipso facto. Sound familiar? (See Serbian Olympic team related video below for a humorous analogy)

In some language orthographies, like that of Croatian (lj, nj, dž), traditional Spanish (ch, ll, rr) or Czech (ch), digraphs are considered individual letters, meaning that they have their own place in the alphabet, in the standard orthography, and cannot be separated into their constituent graphemes; e.g.: when sorting, abbreviating or hyphenating. In others, like English, this is not the case.

Some schemes of Romanization make extensive use of digraphs (e.g. Cyrillic to Roman for English readers), while others rely solely on diacritics (e.g. Cyrillic to the modified Roman used for Turkish). To avoid ambiguity, transliteration based on diacritics is generally preferred in academic circles. Many languages, like Serbian (written in Cyrillic) and Turkish, have no digraphs, and so transliterations into these languages also cannot use digraphs. Source:

Ljudevit Gaj's standardized Latin script Croatian alphabet including diacritics and digraphs. (With his/our 2 latin script alphabetic characters used to represent a sound, highlighted in yellow. 2 characters used to make 1 sound/phoneme is called a Digraph. In script orthography 101, the most simpleton of linguists knows that transliterating a 1 character Cyrillic character to a Latinized version MUST NOT and CAN NOT use a Digraph, but rather only just Diacritics, just like the new Turkish alphabet does). The Croatian alphabet and Ljudevit Gaj's orthography work, as well as Slovene, Polish and Slovak orthographies, can be described as being loosely based on Czech orthography, in that they have a Latin language and Latin script history, use similar diacritics and also have a similar relationship between the letters and the sounds they represent, ie; diacritics to standard Latin letters for expressing sounds which are foreign to the Latin language, but also using some digraphs. And just as in the other national alphabets mentioned, the Croatian alphabet went through periods during its development through the centuries just as the Czech orthographic system did. The role of Ljudevit Gaj and his literary/linguist supporters can very much be likened to the role of later Czech linguists such as Josef Dobrovský, who similarly during the period of the Czech National Revival (late 18th century to the first half of the 19th century), just as Ljudevit Gaj's work did he likewise published his grammar of Czech, Lehrgebäude der Böhmischen Sprache (1809; “Learning System of the Bohemian Language”), codified the Czech language alphabet and brought order to the minor inconsistencies that had been neglected in the previous 150 years, and his reforms in the orthography principles including sound structure principles have also remained in effect right up to the present day. 

As previously mentioned in the historical analogy, Danicic while learning to read and write and publish in the Croatian alphabet, and preparing it to eventually be used in Serbia also, his intention was to discard every Digraph present in the Croatian alphabet devised by Ljudevit Gaj. However after being given permission by the Croatian linguists and scholars to proceed and change only the 1 digraph to the variation of the medieval Latin D with a stroke/ old Eth character, he was forbidden permission to change or publish without any of the 3 other digraphs while working there. Above is the diacritic letters he intended to use to replace the Croatian digraphs of dž, lj, and nj respectively. Surprisingly, these facts about the attempt to redesign all of Ljudevit Gaj's Latin based Croatian alphabetic characters are rarely ever mentioned, but are omitted even on Danicic's wikipedia page, where they make no mention of the 1 letter modification. So it seems stranger still as to why, if his Serbo camp of linguists in Serbia already had their own Latin alphabet complete as the article from the Serb newspaper and page shown above at the beginning implies, with it's fabricated fake alphabets columns, then why doesn't the Serbo Latin alphabet in use contain all 4 of his redesign/modification recommendations already as adamantly espoused by his previous but now dead mentor V.K?  Either then and now used for publishing?  ie: Complete with a Karadzic cyrillic version with his 1 to 1 phonemic and orthographic set of rules, without Ljudevit's totally contradictory to Vuk's rules of NOT containing diacritics AND digraphs which they many years later would then have no need to attempt to modify? Being used in Serbia in his time and/or now? (The fact of their different historical sources and script histories and having/not having digraphs and diacritics is the reason that it is IMPOSSIBLE to transliterate correctly from Serbo Cyrillic to Croatian Latin script and vice versa, sort of like trying to fill an empty 2 liter bottle with a 1 liter bottle of water and vice versa). Just can't be done, you can fool yourself and believe you can..but then you would just be fooling yourself.  Because after all, what sort of simpleton or lexicographer with an already newly made reformed cyrillic alphabet would then decide to make a Latin orthography version using contradictory digraphs rules when his holy rules from the beginning were strictly 1 to 1 character transliteration rules? (also, why even attempt to use even various Latin script languages already for centuries in use diacritics in the first place if writing from a strictly cyrillic publishing, literary and civilizational history? There is absolutely no connection, continuity or literary historicity between them, it would have made much more literary sense to instead also invent new corresponding diacritics also). But it gets much better, there is much more to learn from all this as we scratch beneath the surface to get to the real truth of the matter, even more important than what's been shown and explained up to now. Some more interesting background information.......

I think the above plainly shows that Serb linguists after Ljudevit's death, realized that the Croatian alphabet (aka Gaj's Latin alphabet, and even after the already numerous revisions, editing and ommissions to the Serb alphabet), must be changed inn order to be in conventional orthographic priciples to be used by users of Vuk Karadzic's orthographic system and principles, ie: of strictly using 1 character for each sound like devised for V.K.'s Serb cyrillic. However, like the Czech, Slovak, Polish and even Hungarian alphabets, this just wasn't and isn't the case. It was a different. A different orthographic system, containing digraphs and diacritics. Laughably if the hogwash fake alphabets used on the mentioned recent Serb article near the beginning were true, why would Vuk Karadzic contradict his own all-important orthographic law of strictly 1 alphabetic letter to 1 sound in the first place, by contradictorally instead writing 2 orthographic principles right from the start? All this just shows that it would be more accurate and correct to say that Serbs write in their Serb cyrillic alphabet (which is their first and only official national and historical script anyway), but when deciding to use a Latin script, they then use not the faked alphabet columns he displayed or displayed in the various columns, but instead  use the Croatian  alphabet system. ie: the one based upon Ljudevit Gaj's Latin alphabet and orthographic system which includes the digraphs "Lj".."Nj"...and "Dž" (with Dž also being used in the Slovak alphabet), and equally as important also the specific diacritics that he decided to include as well as the all-important crucial  "H" sound/letter.

More information about the history of the Croatian language and script:

 List of Croatian dictionaries:

Now For The Other Interesting Part Of The Story...(AKA: Printing Serbian Language Books Using The 49 Letter Serb Cyrillic Alphabet & Meant Only For Serbs To Read and Use)

Now, pay close attention boys and girls. (And don't believe what the Serbian woman wrote about taking letters from the "Slovenian alphabet" according to the website where I got her image and that has since vanished, it's not Slovenian because Slovenians wrote using Latin characters also, V.K. took it from the at the time Slavonic-Russian Slavenoserbian-Church Slavonic hybrid alphabet which was officially in use during his time. See colorful arrow below). Some new juicy material from a Serbian source, which by happenstance again, will shed more light on Vuk Karadzic's cyrillic alphabet and his camp's extravagant ridiculous claims. (Notice again in the above image, like almost all Serbian sites devoted to Vuk Karadzic, that there is not only no mention of Ljudevit Gaj for obvious reasons, but more importantly no mention or discussion about any Vuk Karadzic Latin script work either. Why? That's because there wasn't any at any time) Also, in the process of inventing his "new" Serbian cyrillic alphabet and standardizing his out of the blue Serbian language, he used many MANY new Non-Serbian influences that were not historically Serbian (but he called them Serbian anyway) as well as numerous words of Turkish origin which are NOT a part of the Croatian literary history and literary corpus (This is just 1 example, I could go on and on with many more examples of him trying to usurp anything he used from anywhere as being strictly just Serbian). This is because of his constant travels OUTSIDE of Serbia, into areas that included large Croatian speaking communities, Montenegrins, Slovenians and other Non-Serbs. Even regarding just his newly created Serb Cyrillic alphabet, scholars and Serb church leaders weren't too thrilled with his new designs and drastic changes, saying that some of his characters looked "too Latin" and even accusing him of being a Habsburg spy for attempting to change their cherished and blessed Serb cyrllic alphabet in the first place. 

But most importantly, many of the folk stories, poems and tales he used as the foundation for his first Serb dictionary and orthographic system, was borrowed from many Non-Serbo sources, especially containing influences from very old Croatian literary history from the Dubrovnik and Croatian Dalmatia regions and elsewhere where there wasn't even any Serb migrants presence. Again, this was because he was constantly travelling OUTSIDE of Serbia into more mixed populations and then spinning many of his Serbo written works and ideas as being "strictly Serbo" from "strictly Serbo sources" when in fact it wasn't. It's very laughable if one studies further into this topic and comes across much more about this subject presented falsely many times, including elements taken from the first Croatian dictionary and grammar from 200 years previously. And as you can see above, even just his invented Cyrillic alphabet has many Non-Serb elements. That's ok though. He could have made the Serbo Cyrillic look like whatever he wanted to. He could have 5 cyrillic alphabets. No Latin or Cyrillic alphabet system in the world is 100% completely original and containing no borrowings or influences from any other Latin or Cyrillic alphabet system out there in Europe. However, the making of fake alphabets, accrediting them falsely, using erroneous sets of characters, omitting and juggling characters and then especially omitting the existence of historical real people and their already published works and literary history to justify taking the historically real person's/peoples work, in whole or in part as strictly just their own? In the end this is just trying to steal another peoples literary history in the process, a negation of their existence and it's another thing altogether, it's attempting to build a new truth based on a great big lie which is based on just personal fabricated ideas and agendas, it's like communism. Above image source:

Better look at the early 19th century one and only Serb official alphabet being used for publishing and with no connection at all at any time with Croatian literary history. Read directly below for more very interesting information.

The above is the Serbo alphabet at the time of Vuk Karadzic containing 49 cyrillic letters. Whereas the work of Ljudevit Gaj and his colleagues only continued the natural centuries long continuum of Croatian literary history. V.K. admitted early on that "he worked hard to distance his new vastly reformed alphabet and language from Slavonic-Russian Slavenoserbian-Church Slavonic" that was officially used and published with. (something that Croats and no other people or nation anywhere have a history of writing or reading or using at any time I should note). Looking above at his starting point he sure did take quite a vastly different route and overhaul the Serbo Cyrillic alphabet towards and into something else, that's plain to see and without question. (After Ljudevit's initial "Croatian Orthography" publication in 1830, it was in his "Danica" publication in 1835 that Ljudevit Gaj introduced his newly made digraph "Lj" where originally he used the Slovak "Ľ" for the same sound, and "Dj" to replace the equivalent diacritics he used previously in 1830. He introduced "Dž" and "Nj" instead of "Ǧ" as initially proposed, (Dž also becoming part of the Slovak alphabet), and the Czech equivalent sound of "Ň" respectively. Other Czech borrowed diacritics (C, S, Z/Č, Š, Ž) for already existing sounds from his "Croatian Orthography" publications from 1830 he also kept, except he changed the equivalent sound Czech letter "Ť" that he initially used to instead "Tj" but then decided to borrow from the Polish alphabet the letter "Ć" to represent the same sound already present and used. (See Hrvatska abeceda). It must also be recalled that the 17th century writer, historian, linguist and publisher Pavao Ritter Vitezović was a big influence on Ljudevit Gaj to continue the Croatian literary tradition to the next step, as well as his ideas for a Croatian movement which would flower into a Pan-Slavic languages and nations movement. Besides the classic Renaissance masterpieces of Croatian writers from coastal Croatian areas and Dubrovnik, especially  Ivan Gundulić, among others from Croatian literary history one can also include Lovro Bračuljević who was already in the early 18th century promoting the principle "write as you speak", Bartol Kašić and Šime Budinić, a writer and translator who in the 16th century had started to incorporate Church Slavonic along with many Czech and Polish lexemes, he had already started to use the diacritics of č and ž for the Croatian language). Also recall, there were actually  four types of literary languages used in Serbia during the time of V.K.: Serbian Church Slavonic, folk, Russian Church Slavonic and Slavo-Serbian and many of the letters actually had no vocal basis. (Slavonic-Russian Slavenoserbian-Church Slavonic). Sometimes even more than 49 letters could be used. The dysfunctionality, disunity, arbitrariness and instability of the language as a system were a source of great difficulties and a source of embarrassment for Serbian published works. Furthermore, this language had absolutely no defined grammar, (1st Croatian grammar by Bartol Kašić in 1604 btw) and it was used in a form that suited whoever used it. The alphabet seen above and it's accompanying phonology was in effect a disaster.

Here's one last final look at this "H" and no "H" sound/letter topic (which will save the reader a lot of time Googling around too). The entire page from the 1818 Vuk Karadzic first Serbian Dictionary where we see that the "H" letter and sound is non-existent and missing according to V.K.'s very own alphabet lettering order system. Even after all the previously shown Serbian alphabet hacking in half, rearranging, his arbitrarily faked jumbled columns/letters and the omitting and adding sounds and letters to and fro by V.K. himself, yet still the end result is that the equivalent to the "H" sound/letter is still quite simply not there. His alphabet order completely lacks/skips the cyrillic "X" which is "H" and then he just proceeds to the next cyrillic alphabet letter. However this is huge and extremely problematic for an alphabet and language, because without an "H" sound/letter in the language and spelling, you can't pronounce or spell the words correctly as they're supposed to be according to the language, a word spelled without the "H" can have different meanings and likewise in many instances even have no meaning, on the contrary that's how important the "H" sound is and was in the Croatian language and literary history (and other languages literary history too) and why it was always present and used. (In the bottom right corner is also the previously used "Hajduk/Ajduk" example found in this 1818 Serbian dictionary which was explained already). In a nutshell, words including the cyrillic letter "Х" (H), which Karadzic insisted to be used with foreign languages words only, did not appear in the first edition of his and the very first Serbian dictionary. He was only many years later persuaded that the letter could be used in some words but only if the words have a foreign origin, however even then he was still adamant that the cyrillic "Х" (H) was especially never to be included in the Serbian language dictionary as a starting letter, and still absolutely no words beginning with "Х" (H) were includedWe will now move on to more very, very interesting and important topics that will show us even more clearly the 2 very, very different alphabet and literary history routes that the Croatian literary history experienced vis a vis the Serb literary history from long before even this point and equally as interesting and informative. (In the meantime you can browse this entire original 1818 Vuk Karadzic first Serbian dictionary in its entirety and see and read for yourself HERE)...

The Croatian alphabet and Ljudevit Gaj's orthography work, as well as Slovene, Polish and Slovak orthographies, can be described as being loosely based on Czech orthography, in that they have a Latin language and Latin script history, use similar diacritics and also have a similar relationship between the letters and the sounds they represent, ie; diacritics to standard Latin letters for expressing sounds which are foreign to the Latin language, but also using some digraphs. And just as in the other national alphabets mentioned, the Croatian alphabet went through periods during its development through the centuries just as the Czech orthographic system did. The role of Ljudevit Gaj and his literary/linguist supporters can very much be likened to the role of later Czech linguists such as Josef Dobrovský, who similarly during the period of the Czech National Revival (late 18th century to the first half of the 19th century), just as Ljudevit Gaj's work he likewise published his grammar of Czech, Lehrgebäude der Böhmischen Sprache (1809; “Learning System of the Bohemian Language”), codified the Czech language alphabet and brought order to the minor inconsistencies that had been neglected in the previous 150 years, and his reforms in the orthography principles including sound structure principles have also remained in effect right up to the present day. 

What the heck have we here?...

Above we see the "Illustration Creation of the World" and the title page of the book Вѣчный калєндарь (Eternal Calendar) by Захаријa Орфелин (Zahariye Orfelin) from 1783. Zahirije Orfelin was a Serb writer, educator, herbalist, historian and poet, he founded and edited the first Serbian review, Slavenoserbski Magazin (1768), the poem Plač Serbii [The Lament of Serbia] and numerous other works. Orfelin was just one in a long list of Serb authors and writers promoting and using the same Slavonic-Russian Slavenoserbian-Church Slavonic hybrid language and alphabet as the official means of communication and for publishing reading material exclusievely for Serbs everywhere. Orfelin even became the official secretary to the Serb Orthodox Metropolitan of Serbia. His Slaveno-Serbski Magazin popularized even more and paved the way to official Slavoserbian language and alphabet for all published material to be read by Serbs everwhere. It became the official language and alphabet in Serbian schools, in education, as well as the official language and alphabet of the Serbian Orthodox Church, who administered the school systems and promoted it's official usage. The one and only official Serb language and...alphabet. He traveled to other parts of Europe with support from the Serb church to publish books using this alphabet and standard Serbian, as well as translate other books into this Slavoserbian. It was used to publish Serbian books in Budapest as late as 1808. "Little Slavoserbian song book of the Serb people" was published in Vienna in 1814 using this Cyrillic alphabet/language. The Slavonic-Russian Slavenoserbian-Church Slavonic alphabet and language, (which again contained at least 49 Cyrillic ligatures and sounds), was officially sanctioned, approved and blessed by the Serb Orthodox Church as the official language and alphabet of the Serb people. Used in schools and education (which again were run by the Serb Orthodox Church) and for publishing. It was wide spread among Serbs in the Ottoman Empire, especially in Vojvodina. Like the other previous Slavic-Russian-Serb hybridization attempts, this Slavoserbian also fell out of use in Serbia, but only in the 1880's finally. This was mainly due to the radical changes and discarding of this Serb alphabet/ literary history by V.K. between the years 1818 to 1851 and the gradual appearance of his new Serb Cyrillic. V.K.'s new Serb Cyrillic was a radical break with Serbian literary history, it was then heavily influenced and phonemically designed according to the already existing and used principles from the Croatian Latin alphabet phonology and literary continuity through the centuries, who just like Czechs, Poles, Slovaks and Slovenians at no time ever used any Slavonic-Russian Slavenoserbian-Church Slavonic alphabet. More about this as you read on.

Original image of "Suze sina razmetnoga" by famous Croatian baroque poet Ivan Gundulić.  Written in 1622  in the town of Dubrovnik, it is as close to the Croatian alphabet and language of today as the Early Modern English works of Shakespeare or the King James Bible are to today's English language. From the above Croatian example to the Serbo alphabet in use in Serbia 200 years later, (Slavonic-Russian Slavenoserbian-Church Slavonic), the huge difference is quite obvious and plain to see. (Go ahead, take a look at the two again, back and forth, and compare if they are the same alphabet and script or of the same source). The Croatian language has a history extending back to the 14th century of being written and published using Latin script, and this would even include all 3 of our dialects.

Let's take a look at a few more interesting examples showing the natural and fluid Croatian Latin script alphabet and literature progression from even centuries before Ljudevit Gaj and very, very different vis-a-vis the Serbian literary and alphabet/script history that was taking place at the same time. Above is the cover of "Uzdasi Mandaljene pokornice" by the Croatian baroque poet and translator Ignjat Đurđević (also Italianized as Ignazio Giorgi). He was also a tri-lingual poet writing in Latin, Italian and Croatian, his fiery Ljuvene pjesni (Love Poems) are even some of the best lyric poems ever written in Dubrovnik. Along with a number of other Croatian language poem books he published the above work in Venice in 1728. Any person even just barely fluent in Croatian can easily read and understand the text.

As was very common at the time, various Central European national languages and their alphabets, even within the Habsburg empire, started making an appearance and becoming prominent for various religious texts and publications especially during the 16th-19th century. (It's part of the reason diacritics and digraphs started to be used in the first place because they were translating from Latin. The above work example was published in 1815 in Sušak which is a neighborhood of the city of Rijeka, and Ljudevit Gaj would have only been 6 years old at the time, yet the text again is as readable and the alphabet the same as today except for the fine-tuning performed by Ljudevit Gaj for just the "representation" of a few sounds as already dicussed (his added digraphs including "Dž" which even entered the Slovak alphabet, the Czech borrowed diacritics C, S, Z/Č, Š, Ž for already existing same sounds, and the Polish alphabet letter "Ć" diacritic for the already used and represented sound). Essentially, the Croatian alphabet and Ljudevit Gaj's orthography work, as well as Slovene, Polish and Slovak orthographies, can be described as being loosely based on Czech orthography, in that they have a Latin language and Latin script history, use similar diacritics and also have a similar relationship between the letters and the sounds they represent, ie; diacritics to standard Latin letters for expressing sounds which are foreign to the Latin language, but also using some digraphs. And just as in the other national alphabets mentioned, the Croatian alphabet went through periods during its development through the centuries just as the Czech orthographic system did. The role of Ljudevit Gaj and his literary/linguist supporters can very much be likened to the role of later Czech linguists such as Josef Dobrovský, who similarly during the period of the Czech National Revival (late 18th century to the first half of the 19th century), just as Ljudevit Gaj's work he likewise published his grammar of Czech, Lehrgebäude der Böhmischen Sprache (1809; “Learning System of the Bohemian Language”), codified the Czech language alphabet and brought order to the minor inconsistencies that had been neglected in the previous 150 years, and his reforms in the orthography principles including sound structure principles have also remained in effect right up to the present day

Another published Croatian work from 1815 by Antun Mihanović which also heavily influenced Ljudevit Gaj and his whole concept of the Croatian National Revival under the Illyrian movement name, and his idea of a single alphabet standard for promoting the Croatian language within the Habsburg Empire also. Antun Mihanović was a notable Croatian poet and lyricist, and most famous for writing the poem "Horvatska Domovina, " (Croatian Homeland) in Rijeka in 1927 that became the national anthem of Croatia lyrics still used today (Lijepa Naša Domovino) and which also ended up being published in the issue of Danica Ilirska, No. 14, and edited by Ljudevit Gaj in 1835. The above book by Antun Mihanović "Rěč Domovini o Hasnovitosti Pisanja vu Domorodnom Jeziku" (A Word to the Homeland about the Benefits from Writing in Mother Tongue) can also be considered as the most recent Croatian language and alphabet foundations that Ljudevit Gaj started from and continued. Antun Mihanović was also likewise a proponent of the Croatian literary history consisting of the 3 historical dialects since the Middle Ages.

Here's another interesting example from 1661, the Countess Ana Katarina Zrinska, a noblewoman and poet, born into the House of Frankopan noble family, translated and published the book Putni Tovaruš (Travel Companion) from German into the Croatian language (Hervatczki jezik).  Ana Katarina Zrinska was also a patron of the arts, a writer and patriot. In the foreword she addresses the entire Croatian people in their lands and speaks about the need to publish books in Croatian; "Vsega Hervatczkoga i Szlovinskoga osrzaga" (Of the entire Croatian and Slavonian state). What makes this example interesting is not only the Croatian Latin script used during that time (and ligature stylization in general from older era published material in Europe), is that like a number of other Croatian published works from authors during those centuries, she used a Kajkavian-Chakavian-Stokavian amalgam, ie; elements and words from all 3 Croatian dialects. and this is a feature still present today in the Croatian standard language. The book was written in 1660 and published in Venice in 1661, and again not even remotely similar to any Serbian written material from those centuries, just another example of the Croatian published literature, alphabet and Latin script continuum through the centuries.

Pavao Ritter Vitezović was a writer, linguist, historian and publisher who's work was a big influence on Ljudevit Gaj. Vitezović was a solider who participated in the wars against the Ottoman empire and then later went on to set up a printing house in Zagreb. It was in 1694 that he proceeded to publish books in the local Zagreb dialect of the Croatian language. Ljudevit Gaj continued on and reformed/tweaked the Croatian variant of the Latin alphabet for the Croatian alphabet and then introduced new letters based on the Czech alphabet and also Polish alphabet. Being that these languages are already Latin written Slavic languages with many similarities, it was quite natural and correct to do so. Initially following the one letter/one sound ideas of Pavao Ritter Vitezović, Ljudevit Gaj in the end decided to include digraphs in the Standard Croatian alphabet along with his own spelling modifications. The point here of the above image of a work by Pavao Ritter Vitezović is that the Croatian Latin based alphabet was already there, the sounds and letters were there,  just without Ljudevit Gaj's final input regarding the standardized represention of the sounds (the fine tuning mentioned at the top of this post)...again, based on influence from the Czech alphabet, and even Polish. (I can read the text on the page of the book no problem, and it is pronounced just as Croatian is today even without Ljudevit Gaj's final tweaking of how a few letters should look to represent the same sounds used before and after, it's actually easier than reading Shakespeare today in modern English. It shows again the natural progression and continuity of the Croatian linguistic and Latin alphabet course, with absolutely no influence, borrowing or traveling to Serbia for material or guidance from any Serbian written works, grammars or dictionaries, which you will recall is because in Serbia.....they didn't have any to speak of. What were they using and writing with in Serbia to make their non-existent grammars and dictionaries and with how many and what kind of script alphabetic characters to publish books up to the early 19th century before V.K.?......See flashing arrow just up above and examples below.

These Below 18th-19th Century Pre-Vuk Karadzic Serbian Publications Are NOT A Part Of Croatian Literary History At Any Time...They Were Published By Serbs Using Their Official 49 Letter Serbian Alphabet And Strictly Meant Only For Serbs To Read.

The previous Croatian examples from the 1600's I once again compare to the Serbian literary tradition and official alphabet/language customs and norms from even still almost 200 years later. Above is an image from "Serbian Newspaper" published in Vienna in 1813 and below that "Slavenoserbian magazine" also published in Venice in 1768. (Remember, there were no printing presses in Serbia at the time printing books or even any dictionaries or grammars that didn't exist until after V.K.'s drastic changes in the 19th century, any Serbian published material was published outside of Ottoman Serbia and mostly just religious church material using this same hybrid Slavenoserbian). Both of these Serbian examples seen above used the same Slavonic-Russian Slavenoserbian-Church Slavonic hybrid disaster literary language and alphabet discussed just previously in the Slavenoserbski Magazin example. It's very important to remember this fact, that the above 2 publications were published by Serbs...(this part is important to remember boys and girls, it's about the different routes of apples and oranges basically)....and published strictly only for Serbs and any Serbian readership in Serbia and anywhere else they may be found. And importantly as already shown and explained so far...the above published Serb material, language and alphabet is..NOT a part of the Croatian literary course at any time, or the Croatian orthographic/grammar/graphemes/alphabet/script history either. That's because as shown today's modern Croatian language and alphabet derived from the already existing Croatian literary continuum and the orthographic/grammar /grapheme/script being used at that time and before. It quite simply has nothing to do with the other route seen above that was V.K.'s starting point for his new halved and multiple times revisioned Serb cyrillic alphabet, synopsis: the above Serbian language and alphabet published material definitely was strictly just only for Serbs as the magazines didn't fail to importantly make note of usually on the very first page or front cover

Here's a visual aid regarding some of the topics discussed so far, an interesting map of the Croatian lands dedicated to Petar Zrinski, Ban (Viceroy/Prince & Governor) of Croatia during the 17th century. The map was created at the workshop of Joannes Blaeu in Amsterdam as an addition to the work by Croatian historian Ivan Lučić, (Latin: Johannes Lucius)"De Regno Dalmatiae et Croatiae libri sex", Amsterdam, 1666. (On the Kingdom of Dalmatia and Croatia in six books) Blaeu had included the map in Atlas Maior in 1667, and dedicated it to the Croatian Ban Petar Zrinski. At the bottom of the map in the middle it reads..."To the most illustrious and noble Lord, Prince Peter of Zrin, the Ban of the united Kingdom of Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia, (Triune Kingdom) hereditary Ban of the Littoral, hereditary captain of the Legrad fortress and Medimurje peninsula, master and hereditary Prince of Lika, Odorje, Krbava, Omis, Klis, Skradin, Ostrovica, Bribir etc.., Master of Kostajnica and the sliver mine at Gvozdansko, councillor and chamberlain to his anointed imperial majesty, master Ioannes Blaeu dedicates this map". The map highlights the Croatian lands including its regional divisions during the time of Peter Zrinski. The map also shows the geographical areas where, (after Latin which was the Lingua franca in the Habsburg Europe and so in Croatia also), already centuries previously the Croatian language and Croatian Latin script alphabet overwhelmingly had naturally become the main means of writing, reading and used for printing and publishing material.

Since already on the topic, here's even a cover of a poem book by the Ban (Viceroy/Prince & Governor) of Croatia Petar Zrinski mentioned just previously, published in 1660 and as readable and understandable today as 4 centuries ago. The title meaning "Siren of the Adriatic Sea" is read and pronounced exactly the same as it is today because the changes Ljudevit Gaj made only affected the representing of a few sounds, the overwhelming majority of every vowel and consonant sound/letter being represented remained and stayed exactly the same..."Adrianskoga Mora Sirena: Groff Zrinski Petar" is how it is spelled today after Ljudevit Gaj's standardization work. The only small nominal difference being not the omission or addition of any phonemes/sounds but only how they were represented. A modern day 3rd grader could read it without any issues, even much easier than reading the original The Canterbury Tales or any other Geoffrey Chaucer works in today's modern English. The next image continues this self-evident obvious fact.

At this point I'll take another step back a few centuries to the 16th century since this will also clearly prove and show my points again about "continuity". The above page excerpt is from a 5 language dictionary published in 1595 by Faust Vrančić, (aka written in Latin: Faustus Verantius, Italian: Faustus Feranzio, Hungarian and Vernacular Latin: Verancsics Faustus) who was a polymath, inventor, linguist, lexicographer, renaissance philosopher, humanist, diplomat and educator author from the coastal city of Šibenik, at that time a port city controlled by the Venetian Republic. Apart from being secretary at the court of Rudolf II, of the Roman-German Emperor and of the Croatian-Hungarian king who resided in Prague, his works on mechanics, inventions, physics, astronomy and urban planning/design were groundbreaking, (he invented the first working parachute, designed cable-stayed, suspension, truss, arch-tied bridges, aerial lifts, mills, windmills, turbines, clocks, presses etc), but he also importantly compiled the first printed Croatian dictionary, "Dictionarium quinque nobilissimarum Europae Linguarum" ("Dictionary of the five most noble languages of Europe"), including his Dalmation dialect of Croatian and Latin, Italian, German and Hungarian. Inspired by Calepinus' dictionary of 1590, it contains over 5400 words per language and their detailed definitions, including many original technical terms still used in the Croatian language today. It was published in Venice, Hungary, Slovakia, Prague Czechia as well as in Polish. It represented the Croatian language as one of the equals among European languages. (Interestingly, in the dictionary he lists 304 Hungarian words that he deemed to be borrowed from Croatian, and the Hungarian language at the time accepted his suggestions, for example, the usage of ly, ny, sz, and cz, thus it is also the very first Hungarian dictionary). But the main reason I mention this work is because again we see the flowing "natural continuity" and progression of the Croatian alphabet, from today and going straight back to Ljudevit Gaj and still further back to predecessors Ivan Gundulić, Pavao Ritter Vitezović, the first Croatian grammar by Bartol Kašić in 1604, Petar Zoranić, Marko Marulić, Ivan Lučić (Johannes Lucius) and many others in between right to this particular Croatian dictionary by Faust Vrančić seen above. It's an easy simple continuity pattern and literary/alphabet history to see and understand. I circled the Croatian word "Hvala" (which means thanking/to thank, just like today) because of the very evident "H" letter/sound being present which it always has been and especially during the time of Ljudevit Gaj. And like I mentioned earlier regarding the other Croatian literary works, this Faust Vrančić 5 language dictionary from 1595 is as understandable, readable and as close to the Croatian alphabet and language of today as the Early Modern English works of Shakespeare or the King James Bible are to today's English language. (It is for this reason Ljudevit Gaj never needed to be a "major reformer" and alphabet demolisher, because of the preceding centuries continuity the Croatian alphabet didn't require any editing at all except for the "representing of the few sounds" that were already present and used). i.e. this primarily Croatian-Hungarian dictionary proved instrumental in introducing the Croatian language to Europe. It was later even expanded upon when a Czech Benedictine, Petar Loderecker, compiled a seven-language dictionary in 1605, using Vrančić's dictionary and adding the Czech and the Polish languages. (Dictionarium Septem Diversarum Linguarum, videlicet Latine, Italice, Dalmatice, Bohemice, Polonice, Germanice, & Ungarice, - Prague 1605). Vrančić's five-language dictionary, along with Loderecker's seven-language dictionary had eight editions. On the other hand, in a moment we will take a brief look again at what was going on elsewhere still even 200 years later...

I decided to momentarily throw in this because it's directly related to the previous mention of Faust Vrančić and his published dictionary work image, mainly because it stresses again and clearly shows the topic of Croatian Latin script alphabet linear continuity and accompanying literary history within the civilizational sphere and experience it was born in and sprang forth from, ie: the Croatian literary/civilization sphere vis-a-vis the eastern Serbian one. And in this case occuring simultaneously during the time of Faust Vrančić in the 1500's. Above we see an image of the Serb Ottoman Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha (Serbian: Мехмед-паша Соколовић) ghoul who lived during the time of Faust Vrančić and who was the de facto ruler of the Islamic Ottoman empire armies and their Serb allies. It's not generally known that for the many Croatian nobles and generals, including the Zrinski nobles, this man and the forces under his command were the epitome of evil and terror against Europe. He was the catalyst and architect of numerous jihads against the Croatian lands and other parts of Habsburg Europe, from Dar al-Jihad organizing Islamic conquests into many parts of Europe as a part of their battle of civilizations, a monarch of the westward attacking ghoul armies. (For centuries Serb princes even wed off their own daughters to Ottoman Sultans and military/political leaders with the sole aim of just preserving any remaining personal landowning rights and privileges, and they even helped by assembling Serb volunteers for the Ottoman armies. Because of this the Serbs are the only nation in all of Europe that openly conspired with and assisted the Muslim jihads towards free Europe). By assisting and conspiring with the Ottoman empire, he and numerous other lesser Serb nobles and co-conspirators along with their Serb volunteer soldiers are directly responsible for expediting the Muslim terror and incursions into and towards Europe, for centuries waging wars against western civilization and Europe from their base Sanjak of Smederevo. And this all happening during the same time of Faust Vrančić and of the Croatian alphabet/literary and civilizational linear continuity. It's then not very difficult to see and understand the origins of who's Latin script alphabet came from which origo gentis and linear literary continuity and which civilizational and literary sphere was up to other things, different things entirely.

As a last example connected to the shown Faust Vrančić example which again really very well explains and shows the very divergent paths and different histories/origins of the 2 literary as well as alphabet histories, I present this above image. Even though V.K. was/is credited with the official 1st ever Serbian dictionary in the 19th century, (you know, the Serbian cyrillic one made in 1818 without the H and that was demolished and almost halved that I showed an example of previously), on the contrary here we see the very first official Serbian dictionary. Above is an image of the front cover of "German and Serbian Dictionary for Use by the Serbian People in the Royal States" published in 1791 in Vienna, and it again also used the same Slavonic-Russian Slavenoserbian-Church Slavonic equivalents I discussed. Because since 1750, German had been steadily replacing Latin as the official language in parts of the Habsburg Empire including the Croatian crown lands till that time, Serb educational and religious authorities started a campaign for the right to have Serbian taught in Vojvodina, Serbia and anywhere else they were found after migrating to parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. Eventually the Habsburg authorities agreed and reached an agreement with the Serb church, educational and religious authorities and their Metropolitan to undertake the project of producing a specific German dictionary for the Serbian people in their very own script and alphabet...the 1st Serbian dictionary. Led by Habsburg publisher Joseph Edlen von Kurzbeck and even supported by Slovak philologist and poet Pavel Jozef Šafárik, this very first Serbian dictionary was then published with the Serb church and religious/literary authorities full approval and enthusiastic consent in 1791 that you see the front cover of above. Well, there you have it again and it doesn't get much more clearer and easier to understand than that, and it's just another perfect example that the Slavonic-Russian Slavenoserbian-Church Slavonic/Serb language and 49 alphabet dictionary is NOT and NEVER WAS a part of Croatian language dictionaries from already the 1500's, or of the Croatian language and alphabet literature continuity up to today, and it was NOT at any time before or after a part of the Croatian literary corpus and history. (and remember boys and girls, like I said before this language and it's alphabet was joyously accepted by the Serbian school authorities and even blessed and sanctioned as official by the Serb church authorities to be used and read by Serbs everywhere, and it was the starting point of V.K's later presto "new 19th century Serbian cyrillic alphabet and dictionary", after his numerous demolitions and omissions of course). Survey says:...the above published Serbian book most definitely is NOT a part of Croatian alphabet or literary history.


(Here's another pertinent and interesting fact that I should add, something which illuminates the topics of continuity and linear progression regarding the Croatian language and it's alphabet. About 30 years before the work of Ljudevit Gaj and 15 years before Vuk Karadzic started to transform/butcher the Serb alphabet (image with arrow above) to make it closer to what Croatian lexicography was continually and naturally evolving into, the works of Joakim Stulić were being published. What's interesting here is that it shows that the ancient exotic term "Illyrian" through the centuries also referred to the Croatian language and was synonymous with it. (Croatian/Slavic/Illyrian refer to the same language)  In his work "Lexicon latino–italico–illyricum", printed in 1801 in Buda, (later Budapest) he gives this explanation of the term "illyrice"as: "Slovinski, harvatski, hrovatski, horvatski". (ie: Slavic, Croatian, Croatian, Croatian) Why the 3 versions for the word "Croatian"? That is because through the centuries, because of dialects and the Croatian lands since the middle ages at times being separated within different empires, our ethnonym would be written sometimes slightly different, very close but slightly different, mainly because of those factors. This is intriguing because after Ljudevit Gaj our ethnic name came to be standardized exactly as it is written on the historic Baška tablet..."Hrvatski".   The above mentioned 3 similar ways "Hrvatski" was previously written as sometimes of course also extended at times through the centuries to names of people, towns or cities. (This was common throughout the centuries in many European languages. The 3 versions of spelling our ethnonym is a direct result of infuences and factors found throughout, which deals with this and many other facets of early Croatian history). The work of  Joakim Stulić also shows that the Croatian alphabet was following it's natural linear progression up to the time of Ljudevit Gaj, and again is very, very different from the pre-Vk Kazi Serbian alphabet shown at the above flashing arrow.  (Stulić's dictionary is the largest work of older Croatian lexicography (more than 4,700 pages and around 80,000 words).

Synopsis: The Croatian language and alphabet during it's course through history was not even once butchered and transformed (into something unrecognizable from it's previous state) into or to become similar to anyone else's language or alphabet at any time, rather it was always our very own the whole time following it's own natural linear progression and continuum based on the previous centuries of Croatian (Hrvatski) lexicographical history. Ljudevit Gaj was just the next chapter of the same centuries long book.

As previously mentioned at the beginning of this post, besides the subject of digraphs, orthography, diacritics, H sounds, dialects, orthography and dictionaries, the above information reminds us of another very important fact. As previously mentioned, Ljudevit Gaj and the Croatian linguists only fine-tuned our alphabet concerning just the "representing" of a few sounds that have always been there before and after Ljudevit Gaj. (On the other hand Vuk Krzic  for the Serbian language overhauled the Serbian cyrillic alphabet and language to such an extent that he completely chopped off 25 letters from the in use 49 letter alphabet and then added 6 new letters. This will help shed light on who's alphabet/scritps were part of a centuries long continuum, and who's was almost unrecognizable to it's previous version of 49 letters from just a few years earlier. See Here also the Croatian Latin alphabet from a dictionary made in 1595 in the Dalmatia region of Croatia by Faust Vrančić.  A dictionary that included words Latin, Hungarian, Italian and German as well, but importantly showing the natural Croatian language and alphabet/script continuum up to the time of Pavao Vitezović and of course Ljudevit Gaj'. Importantly also, because it was part of the Croatian language, yet not published in the city of Zagreb's local folk dialect, you will notice that the word "sto" for the word "what" is used,  just like the greater majority of Croatian speakers outside the city of Zagreb's local folk dialect. It was published in the old historic Croatian town of Šibenik  It also shows again why Ljudevit Gaj was right, justified and correct to have chosen this dialect as the basis for the standardized Croatian language in his publishing/standardizing work, less just his minor spelling tweaks..

This sheds light on and is a great testament to the rich literary tradition and continuity of the Croatian language, we have abundant published dictionary/lexicography and grammar books and material in each of our 3 dialects reaching back centuries even before the appearance of Ljudevit Gaj and the Croatian National Revival, and all 3 had a a part to play  and contributed to the final standardized Croatian language/alphabet as well)  How were the Serbian language alphabet/cyrillic script grammars and dictionaries different?  Did Serbs believe in the H" sound at that time? Were theirs similar or comparable to this one or different?...(Trick question.....because if you remember they only wrote in a Cyrillic alphabet, but also because........there weren't any, unless you include the German and Slavonic-Russian Slavenoserbian-Church Slavonic dictionary shown earlier) Until 1818 Serbs didn't have a dictionary at all, his work also didn't include the sound for "H" either.  See again flashing arrow again just above to see what Serbs were using in Serbia.

It wasn't long after completing his orthography and script work that Ljudevit abandoned his political work and vision of a greater Slavic confederation of nations, (Which would also have included from Slovene lands to Bulgaria btw.) to include Serbia. He realized that his mistake was stating that he was a non-Serb to begin with and had no desire to be part of some fanciful dreamed up Greater Serbia. He could smell what the Vuk Karadzic camp was up to and wanted no part. He refused to be a signatory to the Vienna Literary Agreement (Where not much was really agreed upon anyway,  it was not official and it only solidified the continuation of Croatian literary history and trends,  but it had also directly influenced Serbo-Slavic to accept Croatian historical influences) It's usually used as a misleading buzz word these days from the people who still haven't accepted the demise of 19th Serbian ultra-nationalistic century politics, programs and thinking. Trying to fuse/force the 2 different literary histories into one and making 1 Yugo-Serbo-Croatian.language and then further still 1 Yugo-serbo people and culture, including even Montenegro and then Slovenia and Macedonia etc etc etc ...This will never be possible because during Communist Yugoslavia this was attempted, and it failed miserably throughout it's existence and even well before that. There are too many words that belong strictly to 1 or the other languages and the civilizational and historical experience they came from as well. Different spelling, different meanings, Turkish rooted words vis a vis old Proto-Croatian and European rooted words in current standard Croatian. There could be no fusing, because in the end basically one side would have to lose and accept the foreign words, foreign orthography, foreign dictionary meaning of the other as the standard, start using words never used before from completely different alien influences, sources and civilizational/historical experiences. Inventing people, histories and forcing different peoples, their histories and historical routes is a recipe for failure from the start. Only political regimes and dictatorships try to do this for better control. None of the Croatian literary figures and their written works mentioned and shown here at any time wrote that in the 20th century they would like to be remembered as writers/authors of a new 20th century invented political language name, or that they were writing for other future foreign new political schemes and their history. More info: Declaration_on_the_Status_and_Name_of_the_Croatian_Standard_Language

A short reminder and synopsis on this topic before continuing on...

Source with much more information:

The Croatian language has three dialects Štokavian, Čakavian and Kajkavian with their heritage of words and vocabulary, while Serbian has two: Torlakian (considered a Bulgarian dialect by many) and Štokavian with their heritage of words and Turkish influences etc. Since Štokavian predominates among the Croats and Serbs, they built their separate literary languages on the Štokavian dialect, but this occurred independently of each other, at different times and in different ways. In the beginning, the Croats used the Croatian recension of the Old Church Slavonic language and built their literary languages on all three dialects. The Štokavian dialect was adopted for use already in literature at the end of the 15th century. From the outset, it incorporated the lexical and phraseo- logical elements of the Croatian recension of the Old Church Slavonic language. It also accepted elements of the remaining two dialects and their literary languages, developing along a continuous historical progression to today’s form. The remaining two literary languages gradually died out of literary use; Čakavian at the beginning of the 18th century and Kajkavian in the mid-19th century

For a long period of time, the Serbs used the Serbian recension of Old Church Slavonic. (Seen and mentioned above)  In the mid-19th century, they based their current literary language on the works of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić , raising the Štokavian dialect of the Serbian village to the status of a literary language. These two languages also have a specific culture, linguistic history and literature. Throughout history there have not been common texts that would be both Croatian and Serbian. The Croatian literary language is characterized by its literary-linguistic history because it developed over the centuries on a rich ecclesiastic and secular literature. Besides that, Croats developed their literary language within the Western Catholic culture. First, they employed the Glagolitic and Western Cyrillic alphabets, and from the mid-14th century the Roman alphabet, which con- tinued to spread and is today the only Croatian alphabet. On the other hand, the Serbs leaned on Eastern, Byzantine and Orthodox culture, employing Cyrillic, which is today the main Serbian alphabet. The results of these different historical trends are two literary languages whose bases are very close, but with their own superstructures and their different norms. Clearly demarcated, the differences between them exist on the phonetic, morphologic, word formation, syntactical and mostly on the lexical and stylistic levels, about twenty percent in total, which is already quite a significant amount of differences. However, that diversity is even more important because these two norms were mutually exclusive even when the Croats and Serbs lived in a common state during royalist and communist Yugoslavia. For this reason, it was not possible, nor can one today speak or write in the Serbo-Croatian language. This is because it never even existed as a concrete language, nor does it exist today. Instead, texts are written either as Croatian or as Serbian. One cannot spontaneously write even one page of the same text that Croats would accept as Croatian and Serbs as Serbian.

Due to the closeness of these two literary languages, there were agreement attempts in the 19th and 20th centuries to create a single language from them and from the Serbian side even attempts to achieve this through the force of the state and political and military hegemony. However, these at-tempts did not succeed due to the stability of these two literary languages and because of strong cultural resistance from the Croatian side. To illustrate the above, a short, ordinary and simple sentence can be cited which clearly shows the mentioned assertions:

 Vlak kreće s kolodvora točno u deset sati (Croatian).

 Voz kreće sa stanice tačno u deset časova (Serbian language using the Croatian alphabet).

No combination can make it into a Serbo-Croatian sentence because the norm is exclusive: either vlak, kolodvor, točno, sat or voz, stanica, tačno, čas. For all these reasons, foreign radio programs broadcast their texts either only in the Croatian language or only in Serbian or in both along with Polish, Czech, Russian, Slovak, German etc, but in the frame-work of distinct emissions (for example, the BBC, Voice of Am-erica, Deut-sche Welle), or today more rarely in the frame of one emission, but with expressly Croatian or Serbian texts (for example, Radio Fra-nce Internationale, Westdeutsche Rundfunk..).

Just one more bizarre attempt to mention which sheds light on how badly the "Serb camp" was tryng to hijack Croatian literary and cultural history and transform it into Serbian.   Right around the time Ljudevit refused to have anymore dealings with Serb writers, rumblings and offers were coming from Serb linguists and scholars to make some sort of a weird bizarre deal.  A proposition where books in Serbia were to change to strictly being printed in Latin script IF in Croatia the Serb "Ekavski" yat-reflex was included as the Croatian standard in printed publications, and then eventually  used as the standard. Very tricky, but this proposed deal fell flat and wasn't even considered seriously, (Sort of like Betamax videocassetes) it was just another underhanded way of trying to Serbianize Croatian language and culture and then hypothetically presto-magikally transform everyone into a `Vuk Kradzic newest defintion of a `Serbian`. Then guys like THIS would have gone around yelling ?A ?A!!! ?A! ?XA  ?A!!! (Even with many different words and meanings,orthography rules, grammars and spelling)...Now the Croatians are spelling AND printing books exactly like us! They are wearing Serbian shoes so they must be Serbs eating Serbian bread and drinking Serbian wine from Kosovo! Just a really dumb idea from the start.

Ljudevit's close supporters Ivan Mazuranic,  Dimitrije DemeterBogoslav Sulek, Ivan Kukuljevic Sakcinsky, and after them Vatroslav Jagic and others continued to work for the historic Croatian language, it's literature and Croatian history.  Croatian and Serbian continued to flow on their own natural course. Serbian continued to use many Greek and Turkish loanwords as they have for centuries, and Croatian language continued to use German and Italian loanwords, (That's the way Europe rolls, lots of loan words between languages) well as the inclusion of newly made Neologism's or editing existing words (Which makes perfect sense) as the vocabulary became larger in this new day and age. That got the "Serb camp" ball rolling.  They realized finally that, to put it into the vernacular, that Ljudevit didn't come into town on the Pumpkin Express, from Pumpkinville to sell Pumpkin Pies.  He was already a politician, writer, linguist and journalist and understood linguistics, geography and history very well. He also knew that the Croatian Latin based alphabet he was standardizing was based on the rich Croatian literary history of the Shtokavian dialect of Renaissance Dubrovnik and Croatian speaking coastal areas, it's vernacular use there and from the  northern Slavonia region. Some of the most beautiful verses in the Croatian language were written there, unlike Vuk who was basing his Serbian alphabet and writings based on speech patterns and stories coming from OUTSIDE of Serbia, including from various non-Serb sources. Then telling the lie that everything he wrote and heard is strictly Serbian sources and that this is the "new Serbian language" Ipso facto. It was around this time that steam was reportedly shooting out of their ears like in those Yosemite Sam cartoons.  A non-Serb dared to refuse the demands of representatives of Serbdom? and Serbian Serbisms?

 Scene from Jelačić’s ceremonial installation on the position of Croatian ban in Zagreb, June 4, 1848, with Lj udevit Gaj pictured bottom right corner.  (Contemporary engraving published in Zagreb’s weekly Svijet on May 19, 1928)

Co-founders Ljudevit Gaj and Count Janko Drašković as well as other members of the Croatian National Revival/Illyrian Movement.

Realities are real. I may have given a bit more background information here than I had initially planned, but in the end it just gives even a clearer picture as to the Croatian Latin script alphabet.  To believe the above page with the fake alphabets,  or it's implied insinuations, would be like believing that in Croatia, (In cities like Zagreb, Rijeka, Dubrovnik or Osijek) Croatians wear the famous horned/pointy toe Serbian opanci. or Serbian nationalist chetnik caps.  Or that they wear them in Poland, Russia, or the Ukraine or even other less well known places like Bavaria, Muscovia, Lubuskie, Puglia, Murcia, Galicia, Moravia, Styria and Wallachia.  I don't know if this rubbish is being espoused by Serb media and chauvinist's because the Greater Serbia dreamers dream hasn't panned out for them, because Croatia is independent now and in NATO, because other Non-Serb Republics have chosen to go their own way as well, because Croatia will most likely to vote in favour of becoming a member state in the European Union next year, or because Ljudevit had a better looking moustache and cooler looking shoes and sword, but to me this is just another one of those irredentist Serb attempts to negate non-Serbs on the history scene. (Not just Croatians)

This article that I found by chance, which included the above fake alphabets, (and which seems to have disappeared because I can't find it now on the site, I'll keep trying) really doesn't surprise me though. I've come across on Youtube, on forums, and news articles, (when looking for something completely unrelated) proclamations by armchair historians (who have probably never read more than 10 books and are basing their truth probably on some 5 page pamphlet or something their grandfather told them one time after drinking too much) ..things that made me almost piss my pants from laughter.  Proclamations that Serbs came to that part of Europe 300 years before anybody, (Because the Byzantine flag/coat of arms was flying on Byzantine ships, and it looks almost exactly like the Serbian coat of arms of later years I guess) ..and they already had a large navy before the Croats or Venetians came. Mind boggling ludicrous stuff.  That the Serbs are a 7516 year old country that is all originaI, actually a Greater Serbia that is all original, even their coats of arms and emblems.  What the hell are they teaching in the history books over in Serbia these days anyway? Making fake alphabets appear then real alphabets and real people disappear from history, then making ancient Serbian navy's appear in history books that came to the Adriatic before the Romans even, then disappear? Then claiming to making Byzantine Serb Orthodox churches before even the existence of the Byzantine Empire, and then proclaiming that because Serbia got squashed in 1389 by the Ottomans, they therefore have the right to ethnically cleanse Non-Serbs centuries later because Serbian Jesus said it's OK and a holy commandment? Who believes this nonsense and crazy talk? Sounds kind of made up or like some form of narcissistic megalomania. A complex.

List of Croatian dictionaries:

Some more subterfuge. After the controversy regarding President Tadic displaying the Serb nationalistic and fascist 3 fingered salute at the Olympic opening ceremonies,  Serbian media tried to downplay and legitimize the topic by posting photos of former American President, George Bush, also proudly displaying the fascist Serbian invented 'Serb 3 finger salute'. (a Serb finger salute that was very popular in the 90's and used by Serb paramilitaries/soldiers and war criminals, basically meaning "fuck off this is serbia now). The photo as reported shortly after on Croatian news portal 'Jutarnji List' however, and as seen in the video, turned out laughably to be a cropped and edited fake. Sound familiar? (Many times btw, regarding different topics, I never have to go far, and many times I am not even looking for similar eye opening material. Serbian sources upload all kinds of video footage that makes my job very easy. Regarding this particular topic of faked alphabets and real alphabets, it basically comes down to believing me and my verified sources, or the people behind making faked George Bush 3 finger images).

In 1848, Gaj was part of the early provisional nationalist triumverate of Croatia. As one of the leaders of the newly created National Assembly, he helped to write their "National Demands" which included:

  1. The union of all Croatian provinces (Croatian-Slavonian Kingdom, Istria and Dalmatia).
  2. Separation from the Kingdom of Hungary.
  3. Abolition of serfdom.
  4. Full civil rights.
  5. Affirmation of the equality of nations.

     As a close advisor of the Croatian Ban (Viceroy) Josip Jelacic, he headed the political section of the Ban's Council, a very important position,but Ljudevit Gaj's political career officially ended on June 7, 1848.  At the time it was a much talked about political series of events for regional politics.  Gaj arrested the exiled Serbian Prince Milos of the Obrenovic dynasty as a matter of foreign policy talks with Serbia. It was known as the Milos affair. There are various accounts of what exactly the particulars were regarding this, but one fact that can be verified without a doubt is that the Belgrade government in Serbia, which was ruled by the rival Karadjordjevic dynasty, wanted Milos killed while he was travelling through Zagreb on his way to Vojvodina. In the end however, Gaj did not arrange for the rival Serb Prince to be killed and instead set him free. (All this having happened against the backdrop of the Revolutions of 1848 all over Europe, and even Croatia) In the case, there were instead suddenly various Serb accusations against him that he was conspiring to extort money but never proven in court. The now called "Milos affair" was news all across the region. After a short time, the Serb accusations against him were judged as unfounded by the courts and he was acquitted of any wrongdoing, as in not guilty of the accusations. After the accusations against him were thrown out, the dealings with the foreign Serbian government, their bickering dynasties and the unfounded charges, Ljudevit Gaj felt no desire to associate with any Serb politicians, Serb monarchies or their politico-chicanery and schemes after this point. After being found innocent of the accusations and it soon became old news, he decided to stay out of politics altogether and did not seek to be re-elected to office in any capacity whatsoever. He now also officially abandoned even the concept of a greater South Slavic/Illyrian union of nations which would include Serbia. It was shortly after this in 1848 that Ljudevit Gaj himself personally and permanently abolished the Illyrian Pan-Slavic movement and so his union of nations including Serbia political concept was a thing of the past. 

    The Revolutions of 1848 were a contributing factor in the direction of the movement now in going full circle back to it's roots from 1830.  He and his close associates realized the aspirations of politicians and writers coming from Belgrade were only interested in the creation of some sort of a Greater Serbia incorporating many Non-Serb lands, and using various means, including he realized, even up to Croatian literary history. The Illyrian concept that was started around 1835 was officially now a thing of history, however an important part of Croatian history. Because the ideal and whole premise behind the concept, which included greater rights for Croatian culture, language and history within Habsburg Europe, had now blossomed into the full fledged and strictly "Croatian National Movement" again. This was the whole premise behind his 1830 written "Croatian-Orthography" his Croatian newspaper, the originally called "Danica Hrvatska.." publications and Croatian alphabet standardizing work. All this important work remained and was continued by others, even though he chose not to be a politician any longer. He did still though continue to influence Croatian literary history and future from behind the scenes, even if not an elected official anymore.  Previous colleagues from his Illyrian Movement days, such as Bogoslav Sulek and Ivan Kukuljevic Sakcinski and others continued doing much for Croatian language and Gaj`s Croatian alphabet, albeit with a more Croatian flavour now, since they also dropped the earlier Illyrian concept. Over time from it's first appearance, people from even other Slavic lands also came to reside in the Croatian lands, and a number of them also taking part in the defence of Croatian culture and language throughout the Croatian lands.  (In the beginning it was through them and Ljudevit Gaj that they organized social evenings, dances, publishing works, Croatian reading rooms and singing of songs to answer the language policies within Austria-Hungary. Previous to their work it was the German language that was used in the life of urban society, and Latin was official in government as was common throughout the Habsburg Europe. In 1835, Antun Mažuranić began teaching Croatian language and literature at the Zagreb School. Through them began to appear more artistic works (especially poetry) in the Croatian language. In 1841 they founded the Narodna Stranka (Peoples Party) which still is in existence even today. The movement was instrumental towards the establishment of the Croatian National Theatre. Vatroslav Lisinski was the author of the first Croatian opera in 1846, Croatia became only the 3rd nation in Europe to have it's very own National Theatre after Germany and Russia etc...)  Ljudevit Gaj eventually went on and married 26-year-old Paulina Krizmanić, niece of an abbott, in 1842 at Marija Bistrica. They had five children: daughter Ljuboslava, and sons Velimir, Svetoslav, Milivoje, and Bogdan. He purchased a plot of land and spent years clearing it and adding more land to it. This plot of land was to eventually become Zagreb's famous "Mirogoj Cemetery". (More on that interesting topic below). He retired to his summer mansion and died peacefully in Zagreb in 1872 at the age of 62.


    (Here's an interesting related fact that probably many people don't know, since I already briefly mentioned the 'Milos affair', Ljudevit Gaj and the bickering Serb royal dynasties of that time.  The fact that the current Serbian line of "royalty", the already mentioned Karadordevic dynasty, originates from a 19th century pig farmer. (Yes, that's right folks, you can Google that, quite the astonishing and regal blue blooded beginnings I must say). As is usually the case with Serbia's erratic history yet not uncommon trend of killing it's own even as well as surrounding peoples, the current pig farmer royalty line of the Karadordevic dynasty eventually had the rival dynasty and King of Serbia, Alexander I killed in 1903 and then they took over. This was because the Obrenovic line killed a Karadordevic previously. After these back and forth Serb royalty fueds and killings, eventually from that point on the pig farmer dynasty line has been Serbia's royal family eversince. A so-called Serb royal family that eventually went on to become dictators after the post WWI creation of that still-born entity of the 'kingdom of Serbs,Croats and Slovenes. Afterwards the Croatians and other Non-Serbs decided that a Serbian pig-farmer dynasty king really had no business being in charge of things and acting all superior dictator king, and so they didn't need or want one from that point onward)

    Dobrica Cosic - "Father of the Srb Nation", his/their words, not mine. (*the video has since the original post disappeared entirely however it doesn't really even matter, he basically follows the same fabricated propaganda methodology as this warped stooge and believes there are no such things as Non-Serbs)

    If any person was to believe the faked Latin script alphabets portrayed as true at first glance, (especially the Croatian column), then you might as well believe that the above image of Vuk Karadzic's reformed Serbian Cyrillic alphabet is actually the Norwegian alphabet.

    Why this fake version of Ljudevits Gaj's Latin script alphabet is/was promoted can probably be explained with another analogy. Sort of like the problem of fake Rolex's.  As most of you already know, only an unacquainted and foolish person  would believe that a Rolex made in stainless steel has a day and date feature on it. Stainless steel Rolex's that contain those features are fakes. ipso facto. Those are only made in 18 kt gold and platinum. Period. No and, if's or but's about it. It's even stranger still when it's some Nixon watch salesperson who is trying to tell you that it's actually Nixon watches that invented the Rolex with the day/date feature. Who would believe such nonsense?

    Because of his pivotal work in the protection and promotion of the Croatian alphabet, literary tradition, culture and language within Austria-Hungary, sometimes Serb vandals aren't happy even with the sight of Ljudevit Gaj statues, Photo/story: (Coincidentally at the same time that Ljudevit Gaj's name and existence was being stricken from being mentioned in books and on plaques in Serbia and streets renamed. However, as of 2008 a total of 211 streets in Croatia are named after Ljudevit Gaj, making him the fourth most common person eponym of streets in the country. The statue has been re-erected and permanently anchored since the time of this photo)

    As for the above article/piece with the faked alphabets, at the end of the day, it really doesn't surprise me in the least.  I've come across articles how children in Serb schools are actually being taught an alternate history where the wars of Serb aggression all throughout the former-Yugoslavia, including the shelling and mortaring of unarmed towns, cities, schools, homes, hospitals etc, were being taught as Serbia being attacked and Serbs defending themselves. So not surprising at all. I could go and on and delve even deeper into the wacky beliefs that this Vuk Karadzic and his lackeys had in those days and their political plans, and what and where were located his sources for his supposed Serbian language stories, and out of the blue presto-magiko Serb language, but I'll leave that for another time. (Again, not from Serbia)  However if there is one sidenote lesson that can be learned from all this, and facts that can be verified, it is the following points..........

    Children at Velika Mlaka school commemorating the life and times of Ljudevit Gaj.

    Statue of Ljudevit Gaj in his hometown of Krapina. The Croatian alphabet and Ljudevit Gaj's orthography work, as well as Slovene, Polish and Slovak orthographies, can be described as being loosely based on Czech orthography, in that they have a Latin language and Latin script history, use similar diacritics and also have a similar relationship between the letters and the sounds they represent, ie; diacritics to standard Latin letters for expressing sounds which are foreign to the Latin language, but also using some digraphs. And just as in the other national alphabets mentioned, the Croatian alphabet went through periods during its development through the centuries just as the Czech orthographic system did. The role of Ljudevit Gaj and his literary/linguist supporters can very much be likened to the role of later Czech linguists such as Josef Dobrovský, who similarly during the period of the Czech National Revival (late 18th century to the first half of the 19th century), just as Ljudevit Gaj's work he likewise published his grammar of Czech, Lehrgebäude der Böhmischen Sprache (1809; “Learning System of the Bohemian Language”), codified the Czech language alphabet and brought order to the minor inconsistencies that had been neglected in the previous 150 years, and his reforms in the orthography principles including sound structure principles have also remained in effect right up to the present day

    Besides in his hometown and in the capital city of Zagreb, various squares, buildings, schools and especially streets are named after Ljudevit Gaj in cities and towns all across Croatia, from western Croatia to Dubrovnik and from Vukovar and Osijek to Split and many places in between. Below is a Ljudevit Gaj street in the city of Rijeka as just one example. As of 2008 a total of 211 streets in Croatia are named after Ljudevit Gaj, making him the fourth most common person eponym of streets in the entire country.

    Image of Ljudevit Gaj elementary school in the town of Krapina - Osnovna škola "Ljudevit Gaj" Krapina. (Related: Osnovna škola Ljudevita Gaja in the city of Osijek, Osnovna škola Ljudevita Gaja  in the town of Nova Gradiška,

    On the 23rd of October 1847, a decision was passed by the Croatian Parliament to replace Latin and make Croatian the official language by law in parliament, government, administration, education and in all public spheres in the Croatian realms. The momentum for the law was noble, historian, politician and writer Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski who a few years previously became the first to make a speech in the Croatian language before the Croatian Parliament in Zagreb on May 2nd 1843. Kukuljević Sakcinski was also an early supporter and member of the Croatian National Revival/Illyrian Movement and both gained seats becoming MPs in the Parliament, along with other members such as Ljudevit Vukotinović, Ivan Mažuranić and others. On June 5th 1848 the first modern era Croatian Parliament was convened, and just a day later the first issue of the "Saborske Novine" (Parliament Newspaper) was published by Ljudevit Gaj on June 6th, 1848.

    Main arcade at Mirogoj Cemetery in the city of  Zagreb, the final resting places of Ljudevit Gaj and some of the other important members of the early 19th century Croatian National Revival.

     Ljudevit Gaj was important particularly for his work towards the right of Croatian being used in government and taught in schools within Austria-Hungary, for unifying Croatians and encouraging the use of the vernacular Croatian language in publishing, rather than any other language of the empire. One of the peculiarities of the "developmental trajectory" of the Croatian language is that there is no single towering figure among the Croatian linguists/philologists that can be considered as high above the rest. There was no need for a revolutionary figure to break from the past and construct anew,  because the vernacular osmotically percolated into the "high culture" via literary works so there was no need for drastic linguistic upheavals—only the minor adjustments and reforms discussed up to here sufficed.

    What have we learned thus far boys and girls, ladies and gentlemen, authors and publishers?...

    1Glagolitic script is the precursor and root of all National Cyrillic scripts in Europe. ipso facto. What does this mean? Not much really these days, it's just a fact. All Slavic languages in various countries are rooted in being written in Glagolitic which was used as Church Slavonic, and personalized, adding or omitting letters to suit their needs.  Eventually, a few centuries later, Slavic nations then went to either using Latin script or forms of Cyrillic script as their mainstay and primary script.  Glagolitic was the basis in making the very first Cyrilic script of Bulgarian cyrillic. (ipso facto)  Even the Croatian Cyrillic script that was used sporadically for a time in the past. (This Croatian Cyrillic was eventually completely overtaken by Latin Script centuries ago, it was a Cyrillic script that was differentiated from Serbian cyrillic used at that time as well)  Glagolitic is the script that Croatian was written in before the acceptance of Latin script in all Croatian spheres, and was in use in some instances (Mainly religious) right up to the 20th century.  This again was used long before the introduction of any sort of Latin script being introduced to Serbian language and literary works, until Ljudevit Gaj came along.  ipso facto. (More about Croatian early history and kings/rulers can be found HERE

    2- Croatian alphabet uses digraphs (digrams)and diacritics, and even both simultaneously. The failed Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850 was not an officially organized or sanctioned meeting and no party was bound by any or all of the meetings proposals.  It was and is just a buzz word used by some to give their proclamations more clout.  Vuka Karadzic's reforms to the Serbian cyrillic script language was not accepted in Serbia until well after his death, and even then not to the extent that he had wished.  The reality is that the Croatian linguistic course did not divert from it's natural course, however, changes were eventually made to Serbian standard which were already present in Croatian.  The rich Croatian literary history written in the Shtokavski  dialect from Dubrovnik, from Croatia's coastal regions and from the northern Slavonia region ALREADY HAD Cakavian and even Kajkavian dialect influences in it. Dating back to over 200 years from the times of the first Croatian dictionary and grammar.  This is what made it the perfect choice, because it was completely based on Croatian territory and Croatian literary history and perfectly tied the 3 dialects together fluidly.  Ljudevit Gaj attended but refused to be a signatory of the proceedings. All attempts during Communist Yugoslavian rule also failed in it's attempt to FUSE the 2 languages into 1 which would then become the official language of all the republics. (Inventing the term ``Croato-Serbian/Serbo-Croatian`` a communist era relic term that was similar to inventing  1 ``Czechoslovak`` language.  This can extend to Russian-Ukrainian, Bulgarian-Macedonian. It`s far from that simple. ipso facto.

    3- Because of temporary border shifts during the times of the Byzantine and Western Roman/Frankish empires, Croatians at different times in different areas were writing in Latin, Glagolitic AND even a distinct Croatian Cyrillic script.  At times even simultaneously in different areas of the Croatian lands.  (Having 3 scripts of a European language used in parallel, independently of each other,  is still to this day considered a European phonomena)  However Serbs have no history of writing in Latin script, especially in regards to historic monuments and inscriptions on historic buildings or stone, and definitely in no standardizing orthography/dictionary capacity or books even centuries later, until Ljudevit Gaj and the Croatian National Revival came along. ipso facto.

    4 - The legacy of Ljudevit Gaj lives on to this day as his Latin script devised alphabet system, and is not only the official national script and alphabet of Croatia, but also has been used by Serbs, Montenegrins, throughout Bosnia - Hercegovina (where it is correctly called Gaj's Latin alphabet/Croatian alphabet),  and in a slightly modified form, is the national alphabet and script of Slovenia. Gaj's Latin alphabet used for writing the Croatian language includes features similar to Czech, Slovak and Polish which differentiate it from the Vuk Karadzic inspired Serb Cyrillic script system. The standard Croatian alphabet includes the sound system, digraphs and diacritics he introduced into his 1830 "Croatian Orthography and "Danica" publications between 1835-38 among other minor features. ipso facto.

    5 - When Serbs decide to write Serbian in Latin script, (or just Romanized Serbian as Serbs like to call it, but it is actually the Croatian Latin script) is more than just another script, they are actually writing according to a writing system that uses a system of orthographic principles that are contradictory to the ones put forward  by Vuk Karadzic, yet at the same time can be correctly and without a doubt be called the Croatian alphabetical writing system.  This is why articles espousing fakeness across the board like the one mentioned are out there, they would love nothing better than to bump Ljudevit Gaj, the Croatian National Revival, Croatian literary/cultural history, even anything Non-Serb, completely right out of the picture altogether. Since that could not be accomplished in the past, Serb politicians tried later during both failed Yugoslavia's to use Gaj's Latin alphabet as a tool in trying to Serbianize and infuse their foreign Turkish rooted words into the Croatian language. ipso facto.

    This inconvenient stumbling block for translating Serbian cyrillic into a Latinized variant reached even more ludicrous proportions during the final death knell years of Communist Yugoslavia and rise of Serbian nationalism.  A Serbian by the name of Rajko Igic ludicrously tried to invent a new script, a new script he called the Slavica alphabet for a hybrid Croatian-Serb language that has never, ever existed. What he wanted to slyly do was invent a new Latinized way of writing Serbian cyrillic, a new alphabet that he wanted Croats to use as well... BUT! ....(Here's the strange twist)  ...An alphabet that was to be shared by both peoples, BUT where every single one of the Croatian/Ljudevit Gaj's diacritics AND dipgraphs would be replaced by what? Cyrillic letters!   (Can the utter ludicrousness and reasoning behind this idea be any more plainer to see?)  This way the 1 to 1 transliteration would be completed according to Vuk Karadzic's rules AND all of Ljudevit Gaj's work and previous Croatian literary works would have been thrown into the garbage. This idea was probably very well taken by Tito era Communist Greater YugoSerbia aparatchiks and maybe by people who like to play spin the bottle by themselves, but among Croatian linguists and historians  about as popular or desired as getting bit by a Tsetse fly.  Some people just can't leave well enough alone I guess.

    This recent example of subterfuge and blatant misrepresentation from a Serbian news site is really not surprising at all though, and is just one example from a long list of lies emanating from Serb portals these days. (I've come across some doozies, claims to Serbs being in the balkans before anybody and building Byzantine churches before there even was a Byzantine Empire, and a lot more) Even from those days in the 19th century,  claiming territory belonging to other people/nations/states, from claiming literary works of Non-Serbs as being Serbian, from claiming people who are not Serbs as being part of some magikal mystical serb race, a race that is so magical and mystical that they are not included in school cirriculum history or science books even. The "article" that was included with the above faked image of alphabets... Where are the various originals, examples of previous Vuk Karadzic Latin script work to show how suddenly in 1841 these scripts came to be?  Why haven't they been telling the world of this momentous "fact" for the last 150 years with these proofs and using them since?  Proofs sent to scholarly institutions the world over, to major newspapers all over the world? Why would Vuk Karadzic or his camp use a contradictory orthography system to write Latin script from Vuk's cyrilic in the first place, a Latin script orthography system that includes Vuk's hated diacritics and especially digraphs, in the first place?..and then for years later be trying to change them back to Vuk Karadzic's Non-digraph/diacritic character system again? Why?...because the above faked alphabets image and the related news portal "article" is a bunch of B.S. Or as we say these days in the vernacular...just plain horse shit. (I've read  a few very fantastical Serbian explanations when posed with this specific digraphs question, and the "explanations" are just a bunch of b.s as well, with no documents, no copies of documents, no sources, no other images of pages showing the progression of Serbian Latin script orthography and script work)

    6- Another interesting sidenote.  When the Jugo-Serb military backed Serbs paramilitaries and chetniks in Croatia started their cleansing campaigns and attacks in the border areas of Croatia in the 90's, one of the first things they did was tear down and replace not only Croatian government and cultural symbols, signs, plaques, statues, etc, while also destroying all sorts of buildings,  BUT also even including replacing the Croatian road signs. (Some of the roadsigns were even in Serbian cyrillic and Croatian Latin script) The road signs were then replaced with Serbian cyrillic script signs only. This is very strange however. Why the road signs to Serbian cyrillic only now? Strange because....the Serb minority living in those areas of Croatia at the time didn't even use, read or understand cyrillic script, that's why. The majority of them only knew how to read according to the Croatian/Ljudevit Gaj's alphabet and were even starting to speak Croatian standard, so that's very strange indeed. Why all of a sudden abhor Latin script and the western Croatian alphabet so much and come running home to Serbian cyrillic exclusively? (running home allegorically not literally) Start shooting neighbours so they can put a Serbian church flag in their window? This all encompassing post gives insight as to why this was done. (Another interesting fact to consider,...for Croatian readers to go and read centuries old Latin script Croatian literature and writings from the past, for the most part it wouldn't be a problem at all. Some minor spelling changes throughout the centuries but still understandable. However if Serbs were to go back 300 years and read Serbian Cyrillic literature, most would not be able to read or understand it even if they already read Serb cyrillic. The Serbian cyrillic scripts used from that time are very different from today's with almost double the cyrillic alphabet characters. Just another interesting fact which) 

    (Recall, after his initial "Croatian Orthography" publication in 1830, it was in his "Danica" publication in 1835 that Ljudevit Gaj introduced his newly made digraph "Lj" where originally he used the Slovak "Ľ" for the same sound, and "Dj" to replace the equivalent diacritics he used previously in 1830. He introduced "Dž" and "Nj" instead of "Ǧ" as initially proposed, and the Czech equivalent sound of " Ň" respectively. Other Czech borrowed diacritics (C, S, Z/Č, Š, Ž) for already existing sounds from his "Croatian Orthography" publications from 1830 he also kept, except he changed the equivalent sound Czech letter "Ť" that he initially used to instead "Tj" but then decided to borrow from the Polish alphabet the letter "Ć" to represent the same sound. (See Hrvatska abeceda). It must also be recalled that the 17th century writer, historian, linguist and publisher Pavao Ritter Vitezović was a big influence on Ljudevit Gaj to continue the Croatian literary tradition to the next step, as well as his ideas for a Croatian movement which would flower into a Pan-Slavic movement.  Besides the classic Renaissance masterpieces of Croatian writers from coastal Croatian areas and Dubrovnik, especially  Ivan Gundulić, among others from Croatian literary history one can also include Lovro Bračuljević who was already in the early 18th century promoting the principle "write as you speak", Bartol Kašić and Šime Budinić, a writer and translator who in the 16th century had started to incorporate Church Slavonic along with many Czech and Polish lexemes, he had already started to use the diacritics of č and ž for the Croatian language)

    "Pay no attention to that man behind the curtain! Waaaa? Ljudevit Gaj...Who?..Croatians? Non-Serbs? Never heard of them.....Can't you see he's busy working on Cyrillic and Latin and digraphs and orthography and chopping and gluing and dancing and scribbling and juggling characters around for his new books!?  He has no time for your made up imaginary "H" sounds, Non-Serbs and your Non-Serb language and script/alphabet history!....The faked alphabets image and related article from the Serb news portal shows a few things. was a total failure in trying to steal, replace, misrepresent, edit and omit characters from Ljudevit Gaj's Croatian Latin script alphabet.  This fact and parts of this post also shows that in Serbia they have alternate versions of historical events that they occasionally want their readers and people to believe, so that they can feel special about themselves.  A trend that has been going on for quite some time now and has moved into other spheres such as politics, history,  biology....

    It seems almost like the system V.K. used in making all the faked alphabets columns was based on the "Pea in a shell" game.

    One of the most important Šulek's articles was Serbs and Croats (1856), published in the Neven magazine on more than 30 pages. That sober text, combining history, literature and philology, challenged the Greater Serbian positions and Vuk Karadzic who was attributing the entire Shtokavian dialect literature to the Serbian linguistic corpus.  He wrote....."Those who want to deny the existence of a people should be well-armed with reasons based on the nature of things and evidence from credible historians. The coastal writers call their language Croatian" says Šulek, citing a dozen works mentioning the Croatian language in the title. On the other hand, there are no old books written in Glagolitic or Latin scripts where the writers call their language Serbian in fact, even the books written in Bosnian Cyrillic call their language Croatian or Slav. Croatian writers could not call their language Serbian because the Serbs used a mixture of Old Church Slavonic, Russian and Serbian with Bulgarian Torlakian dialect during most of their history, while the Shtokavian dialect and written material "flourished only with the Croats until recently". - Bogoslav Sulek

    Comments even related to the conspiracy driven hot topics of "Was Ljudevit Gaj a reptilian shapeshifter? Was Ljudevit Gaj in cahoots with the "666 Euro-Beast Whore", Are Russians really from Planet Serbitron X-512?"  "Are Serbs really just Triballi? Why on earth do some drunken Srb historians think Sclavenia (Which was just an ancient term used by the Byzantine empire in regards to ANY Slavic people they encountered in Europe.  I looked into all of this and know what I'm talking about)....was only just Serbia, or Rascia, Servia or Triballia? or sometimes the Romanians and Bulgarians living in Servia? Whats up with the Serb pointy/horned toe opanci?" and "Why do so many Serb songs suck?",  "Will the Serbs in September 2013 be proving to the world that it is really them in the European Union and not Croatia because they were just keeping their seat warm for them? "Was Demikhov's dog really just in fact the result of Serbian veterinary-linguists and not some supposed, enigmatic, unproven made up Dr. Vladimir Demikov?"  "What exactly on earth is a Serbian race anyway?" Why do many Serbians still not understand the concept of, or comprehend the answers when they google this question?.. are welcome.

    *As an interesting sidenote, Dasha Zhukova, girlfriend of Roman Abramovich would be familiar with this kind of stuff.  She graduated university with a degree in Slavic Studies and Literature and could easily verify everything I've shown here as true.

    Related posts: croatia-slovenia-and-eu-celebrating-20






    Update March 8, 2012 - I took some time and tried to hunt down where else the above 2 alphabet pages could be found on the internet with text to read, and read what was being said. I found a few more examples of the same faked alphabets page image only at a couple of (surprise..surprise) Serb forum chit chat sites. They were writing mainly in Cyrillic, I was busy, so I had an acquantance quickly translate the portions I sent to her. Then I even double checked on google translate (great tool) a few paragraphs to make sure my eyes weren't deceiving me. Because it was more bizarre, fantasy laden delusional talk than I had thought before starting this post.

    In a nutshell, the total of 3 Serbian chit chat sites, with the threads involving these the faked alphabets image and talk about them was absolutely plain crap. I'm talking no proofs or evidence about what they were implying. Nothing but only the faked alphabets chart I added in this post, always just that same page image. No other books, pages, source references...nothing at all.  It got so ridiculous that I had to laugh at the pathetic attempts of the same 2 guys who were doing all the talking/writing regarding this topic, on all 3 sites.  Just saying the same thing things on all 3 sites, the same single black and white page image, using the same names and avatars even. Actually, they weren't even saying much, just posting the page image over and over and praising Vuk Karadzic. (For what exactly? throwing together a bunch of Latin characters in different columns as alphabets that nobody used I guess)  This was as scholarly, intellectual and  proven with facts and source material as it got. (For example, HERE one can see a highlight of just a fraction of many examples of the fluid progression of the Croatian language and Latin script characters used, from a millennium ago and then right up to and including Ljudevit Gaj and the Illyrian/Croatian National Revival, all including authors, dates, where, contribution to lexicography and liguistics, actual pages from actual books for study/inspection etc.  Just a very small example.

    It was like they were not only saying lies, and giving erroneous information to their chit chat forum pals and chumps, (There was only a handful of them  anyway)... but spinning all the way into supergalactic hyperdrive.  Totally surreal and mindboggling. Things only an ignoramus would believe, with no knowledge or study of this topic of scripts/languages and European languages.   In one example the guy was stating.... (And in cyrillic remember, strictly for forum members eyes, and again with no proofs, no documents, no arhived material, no links to more information or further reading, just talk)...that Ljudevit Gaj didn't even do anything. That he wasn't a writer, he had no part to play whatsoever in Croatian history or Croatian Latin script work, that Ljudevit didn't have anything to do with the Illyrian movement or the Croatian National Revival....that Vuk Karadzic is sort of like a god figure..and most bizarre of all....That it was Vuk Karadzic that started the whole Illyrian movement...and (get this)...that Vuk Karadzic never knew anything about the history of Croatians, Croatians, (Even Montenegrins for that matter, and others) ...never heard of Ljudevit Gaj, Croatian literature and Croatian literary history. (That's hilarious because Vuk Karadzic and his camp, and this is documented in many places, was not interested in any kind of Illyrian/Pan-Slavic movement to benefit the community of Slavic speaking nations from the start, because it was not all strictly Serbian oriented and Serbocentric.  V.K. was working for strictly Serb interests in all spheres inventing Serbo-mythomania)  Totally wacked out bizarre crap.  The chumps in the forums were all lapping it up and agreeing like you wouldn't believe, praising every word like it was Radovan Karadzic, Vojeslav Seselj and Ratko Mladic themselves giving a pep speech before handing out weapons to go kill Non-Serbs in the 90's  It got that ridiculous, ridiculous I didn't even care or need to read anymore of what they were flapping their lips and tapping their keyboards about. They were in spin-world.  Reading about 20 minutes worth of drivel from the sites was more than enough. Talking about the faked 1841 page image like it meant something, using the faked page alphabets to spin and make fantasy history, then full circle using the faked page image as proof to back up the fantasy stories they were talking about which originated with the faked page, which again is groundless as you've seen now. So there you have it folks. A few guys on some Serbian chit chat threads using the same faked alphabet image, and always only just that one... then telling preposterous and delusional stories and perversions of history to some chump the best Serb literary history has in trying to fool people, in condoning the stealing and misappropriation of not only the work of Ljudevit Gaj, but of Croatian literary history and even national history.  Some people writing made up histories with the aim of.....of what exactly? hindsight now,  it seems with the aim of  proving that Vuk Karadzic, regarding Latin scripts,  knew how to take bits and pieces of other languages scripts and come up with a couple of nonsensical confused set of faked alphabets for his 1841 book reprint. (purportedly)  Standardized Latin alphabet scripts that nobody in the history of the world has ever used as a standard in writing their languages. That's very pathetic and sort of laughable.

    However at the same time I'm really glad I came across this topic, this strange script business and mystical purported "page image".  Instead of telling wacked out versions of history and script lessons based on shady images and imaginary scripts, which in effect befuddle the reader even more in trying to understand the logic of script/orthography rules, along with alternate histories being applied to said image....Instead I decided to thoroughly look into the topic.   A schooled linguist  following the logic patterns of what the couple of guys on the chit-chat sites were saying, their "so-called points", in the end just made them seem more confused and full of it than ever....On the other hand also,  because I decided to investigate, elaborate on, dissect in the open, retort and explain in plain English for everyone in internet-land to see and understand my points, I ended up learning more in the process..more not just about this topic but other related ones as well,  because in my case I used real documents, facts. archived material and sources to show reality. Ipso facto.

    Now that I have explained, using various sources, links, real Croatian historical literary examples, dates, people, places and events, the casual reader with a rudimentary knowledge of orthography, digraphs, Latin script, diactrics, and some Slavic based languages, should without a problem understand everything concerning this post......On the other hand for those who usually just look at the images, some text and skip other important stuff, I present the above puzzle image as an analogy.

    Presented in this analogous image above are the  purported alphabets, scripts, and orthography rules discussed up to this point. It portrays the utter state of confusion and mess as the end result in the purported 1841 page image and fantastical contradictory stories that go along with the image at the previoulsy mentioned Serb chit chat sites. .  Namely,  they are just faked Latin scripts that are proven to be fakes because they are an incoherent mishmash of characters and contradictory orthographic principles, especially even the alluded to Serb Latinized script, because it contains orthographic principles that contradict each other in the same column/alphabet even, like not knowing which set of digraphs to use even, and most ridiculous having digraphs in the first place. (Like I mentioned throughout this post, a schooled and learned linguist or intelligent person would never, ever use digraphs to make a Latinized version of a digraph-free cyrillic script only language, but rather use just diacritics, because that would be the only way to be able to transliterate into Latin script languages according to common well known orthography rules)  Combined with Ljudevit Gaj's digraphs that have been taken and replaced, and even diacritics that are missing, or substituted from his work in 1930, I don't see how any advantageous point or alternate history can be alluded to or even hoped for, or how even any of his thoughts or ideals written in his "books" can be taken seriously.

    A pointless endeavor which only exposes even more Serb camp attempts to, in their eyes anyway, obliterate Croatian orthography, literary history and Ljudevit Gaj and Croatian literary history from the Serbian conciousness.  This is why the the portrayed faked (purportedly 1841, yet not found in any other sources or examples and especially no original page images or published material) Serbian and Croatian alphabet alluded to in the page image has never been the standard Latin based alphabet script of any language in the history of the world. Not used in any published books, grammars, dictionaries or any written material whatsoever Bottom line..a piece of paper with crazy mixed up characters and orthographic rules being pawned off as something real .as seen on my previous links, Croatian Latin script, grammar and literary history had been going on for centuries, was being being standardized by Ljudevit Gaj already in 1830,  and was not in need of a standard faked and horribly edited and mixed up Latin script alphabet to be slipped into some book 11 years later.  A Latin script alphabet that was never used at any time for any language or even used to publish 1 book. Maybe he had a split personality?

    (State of Saint-Urbain, contracture developed after a bath, he has not yet heard the "H" sound)

     The above seen image of fake and mixed up alphabets and orthographic systems includes elements from:

    1Croatian Latin alphabet script standardized by Ljudevit Gaj beginning in 1830, includes his original diacritics and the digraphs he included into his "Danica" publication in 1836-38. (After his initial "Croatian Orthography" publication in 1830, it was in his "Danica" publication in 1835 that Ljudevit Gaj introduced his newly made digraph "Lj" where originally he used the Slovak "Ľ" for the same sound, and "Dj" to replace the equivalent diacritics he used previously in 1830.  He introduced "Dž" and "Nj" instead of "Ǧ" as initially proposed, and the Czech equivalent sound of " Ň" respectively. Other Czech borrowed diacritics (C, S, Z/Č, Š, Ž) for already existing sounds from his "Croatian Orthography" publications from 1830 he also kept, except he changed the equivalent sound Czech letter "Ť" that he initially used to instead "Tj" but then decided to borrow from the Polish alphabet the letter "Ć" to represent the same sound. (See Hrvatska abeceda)  It must also be recalled that the 17th century writer, historian, linguist and publisher Pavao Ritter Vitezović was a big influence on Ljudevit Gaj to continue the Croatian literary tradition to the next step, as well as his ideas for a Croatian movement which would flower into a Pan-Slavic movement.  Besides the classic Renaissance masterpieces of Croatian writers from coastal Croatian areas and Dubrovnik, especially  Ivan Gundulić, among others from Croatian literary history one can also include Lovro Bračuljević who was already in the early 18th century promoting the principle "write as you speak", Bartol Kašić and Šime Budinić, a writer and translator who in the 16th century had started to incorporate Church Slavonic along with many Czech and Polish lexemes, he had already started to use the diacritics of č and ž for the Croatian language)

    2 - Hungarian Latin alphabet being used in 18th and early 19th century.

    3Czech Latin script alphabet based on 15th century work by Jan Hus

    4 - Polish Latin alphabet with digraphs.

    5 - The concept, rule and different cominations of Digraphs used in alphabets 1-3. Digraphs were/are contradictory to Diacritic only, 1 character to 1 sound, cyrillic alphabet script orthography. (One may also include the plain fact, obviously, of the historical continuum of using Latin ligatures for the Croatian language)

    6 - A Serbian and Croatian faked alphabet Latin script system is the result as the various puzzle pieces are piled together then a few pieces thrown out, heck, then not even knowing if one of the alphabets contains the sound H or not.  A system containing contradictory orthographic principles in the Serbian case, containing characters and elements from 1-5 for both cases, omitting and replacing characters from the Croatian alphabet, Croatian digraphs added in Serbian Latinized alphabet column and other which have never been used before or since. Croatian digraphs replaced with erroneous digraph and not used character combinations. Even dual sets of digraphs in both columns, and more. Both faked Serbian and Croatian examples have never been the standard Latin based script for any language in the history of the world.

    ....One is then left wondering just how many Latin scripts do Serbs use? Are there more out there? Why didn't they use it from then on? Is it the Latin script they were only using in Serbia? Does the H" sound exist for them now, why not then? Did Vuk Karadzic spontaneously decide to contradict his 1 character to 1 sound rule principle for this edition of his book only?  Did any books of his, or any books at all get published using the shown Latin scripts from that point onwards in any language at all?  Did they only use the scripts portrayed only at his house or at church? Did Vuk Karadzic really know what a digraph is? Did Vuk Karadzic all of a sudden get a creative urge in 1841 to invent a Latin script specifically for Serbian, and then for other languages/people as well, when they already had and/or were using their own and having their own Latin script alphabet natural continuum ?  During the time of inventing these mixed up never used Latin scripts were the Croatian linguists at Lj udevit Gaj's farm planting turnips, carrots and brocolli for their new canned vegetables business because they didn't exist? How could it be that V.K never heard of Ljudevit Gaj and the Croatian National Revival movement or about Croatian literary history? Who was going around chopping big chunks of their cyrillic alphabet, adding large segments and making alphabets unrecognizable within a very short span? Not Croatian inspired literature or literary movements. ipso facto.

    A digraph in the Croatian Latin alphabet can be likened unto a beamed eighth note when writing music, as opposed to the Vuk Karadzic Serbian system of strictly single eighth notes.....

    More information about the history of the Croatian language and script: _Ljudevit_Gaj

    List of Croatian dictionaries:

     H comes before Š, Lj, Nj, Dž and Ž, but after Ć and Č. Šud aj vak u tru it?


    ......End result being an incoherent mishmash of contradictions, non-existent scripts. Just basically a big mess and total rubbish.  Ljudevit Gaj and the Croatian linguists, orthographers and  lexicographers at that time didn't need Vuk Karadzic (purportedly) making up scripts for them,  If it was meant for the Serb Latin script, that would be fine. Vuk Karadzic could have made his Serb column Latin look like whatever he wanted it too, he could have started throwing in Chinese and Japanese characters, Italian pronunciation rules, Turkish and Russian Latin script and rules, Klingon diacritics, whatever, and used it in publishing books from that time on, however it wouldn't be reality and not Ljudevit Gaj's Croatian script and orthography. Vuk Kardazic was concerned with only a new standardized  Serbian cyrillic, he did not work on Latin scripts, and was definitely not an authority on Croatian literary history or Croatian Latin script alphabets, and that is plainly evident from the quickly thrown together erroneous and horribly edited Latin script characters in the purported 1841 page image. From the time of his/the first Serbian dictionary in 1818 to the 1850's,  his Serbian cyrillic alphabet went through various character changes and edits, but never was there any concern with or work on any Latinized script for his new finalized Serbian cyrillic alphabet. Survey button HERE

     Image of Ljudevit Gaj (with excerpt from the Croatian National anthem at top) on a post card from 1901

    Again, I remind the reader, because of the Vuk Karadzic's Serbian cyrillic script, it's orthographic system rule of strictly 1 sound to only 1 character, and taking this principle vis-a-vis Ljudevit Gaj's finalized system of digraph's, and to a lesser degree diacritics....the only way that these 2 alphabets could ever be used in a, or described as a 1 all encompassing in harmony, synchronized system in transliterating  Serbian to Croatian and vice versa, or even Serbian cyrilic to a Latin script alphabet...period... would be if the 2 alphabets were a complete carbon copy of each other in every regard. Such as the Danish and Norwegian alphabet or at the very least a diacritic only Latin character system such as the Turkish alphabet.  That would also be the only conceivable way of ever even having a microscopic hope for some kind of fused Croat-Serb or vice verse language transliterating system.  Thats's even without getting into the myriad of different words, (Including also Croatian Neologisms), onomastic and etymology origins, spelling and their meaning, (Just using simple easy to understand terms here) ... this has already been proven to be impossible over the last 150 years to this day. Serbo-Croat is not a language with a single literary system or history, it's an invented term from Communist Yugoslavia in attempting to make all the people in the country use the term as their official language. A fancy academic sounding term and very misleading communist Yugo-slavian invention and way of trying to pawn off and impose on various peoples in the multi-national communist state some type of confusing and many times contradictory and unstandardized Pidgin "lingua franca". (Tito himself spoke an odd and strange mixed up variety of dialects and pidgin himself, so this was not surprising, many of his closest henchmen couldn't even understood what the hell he was talking about, and he was the guy behind attempting to implement these new genius ideas and commie agendas). The "state sponsored/imposed" and "dictator Tito-approved" new mother tongue, invented adjective and vocabulary word. Stuck right between the terms "communist propaganda scam" and "smells like a bunch of crap". (Similar to the extinct state sponsored term of the former Czecho-slovakia(n).

    A visual representation which summarizes the previously mentioned facts. Even if one disregards the separate courses that the Croatian language and Latin based alphabet and literary corpus has taken, it's centuries long continuity, it's orthography principles, dictionaries, grammars and especially it's diacritics and digraphs in relation to the course of the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet being abandoned and then a new Serbian Cyrillic being eventually the end of the day one thing is still plainly evident. For some of these Serbian types at their chit-chat forum sites that still believe that they have 2 alphabets (with their plain to see different civilizational and literary histories, origins, linear continuity and contrary orthographic principles..etc) very much like going out wearing mismatched shoes but still believing and trying to make other people believe that they're not, believing that they are the same shoes. 

    Believing and telling people that they're the same shoes made at the same time in the same factory on the same assembly line using the exact same materials. (absurdly believing it even if the tags on the shoes prove otherwise and are even written in different scripts). The one foot would be wearing a Serbian pointy opanci and the other is wearing some Croatian footwear. It's contradictory and just really unfashionable and absurd when going to the library to read about the history of Alba Bulgarica, Dar Al Jihad or to read anything actually, people will think you don't even know how to dress yourself or have some kind of multiple personality disorder. Croatian literary, grammatical and alphabetical continuum didn't have people traveling around everywhere but historically Croatian regions, then chopping off half their alphabets, then making up more chunks using other peoples past dictionaries and grammars and literary history from a completely different civilizational origins to make their new language and alphabet closer to what the other people are already using, incorporating orthographic rules that are from entirely different scripts even.  (When you have nothing, as in no published dictionaries or grammars, no literary foundation to rely and build upon to invent your new literary language and alphabet then that's what you do)

    Another perfect example which simply illustrates the previous points. The orthographies, graphemes, civilizational and literary past history of the two alphabets origin and final form is like riding a bike. The western Latin script based civilizational and literary history of one wheel is contradictory and using it is actually self-defeating and even an insult vis-a-vis the personal Cyrillic civilizational and literary history wheel of the other nation's literary history, it's like stepping or even pissing on your very own literary and civilizational toes and identity. Each tire is the product of vastly different cultural milieu.  Survey says...the bicycle is contradictory because the wheels are absurdly contradictory, they were manufactured in different factories by different companies according to different schematics. To progress forward fluidly the wheels must not have any contradictions, so the rider/writer has to use only the one wheel shape, material and diameter at all times made on the same assembly line in the same factory by the same company. (ie; produced from the same literary and civilizational history, from the same origo gentis, continuity and linear history of which the alphabet and it's script is a product from...because the very alphabet is the product of and exists solely and only because of it's civilizational, societal and literary history and cultural milieu. It is for this same reason why Slovenes, Czechs, Slovaks and Poles also use only Latin script graphemes in their alphabet, and who also likewise did not orient their alphabets towards any Cyrillic alphabet system during their literary history, including of course going around chopping off almost half their alphabet and then even...PUBLISHING NEW DICTIONARIES WITH NO LETTER "H" SOUND.

    Croatians, just like every other normal country and nation in Europe, publish material and use the script and alphabet that evolved continuously and simultaneously within it's own literary history for many centuries, and within it's own civilizational experience and cultural milieu, (a trait and legacy from the medieval times when Latin was the official lingua franca of those nations), using their evolving alphabet to publish poetry, grammars, dictionaries and many other written works. For this reason it is naturally their official alphabet and script and only alphabet and script needed or wanted to publish with because it just makes the most historical and logical alphabet sense and is a result of a many centuries natural literary/civilizational continuum. Hence the example above, most normal people also use just one hairstyle theme for their entire head as their official hairstyle for people to see, they want a hairstyle that is not in contradiction or self-defeating for people to see that the person is probably just moronic looking or just hates their very own civilizational literary hair history also. (Basically, pick a hairstyle and use it for your entire head, it just makes the most sense, using 2 contradictory hairstyle themes is just absurd)

    Another simple analogy to show this orthographic discrepancy is calendars. Croatian calendars use the Gregorian calendar. (Btw we also have Croatian months names which are different from Serb months names, just more supplementary information for the benefit of the reader) Croatian calendars are based on the Gregorian date/time keeping system, of course written in the Croatian Latin script alphabet. This different time and date keeping system when compared to the Julian calendar shows how they are not in sync nor ever will be. So the Gregorian calendar date/time keeping system continuum vis-a-vis the Julian calendar continuum is analogous to the Croatian alphabet orthography history (digraphs, Latin script, inclusion of the letter H sound, input from dialects, words and their definitions etc) and related literary/civilizational process that it emerged from, vis-a-vis the Serb cyrillic literary script/orthography historical process, (even after V.K.'s abandonment of the previous official Serb cyrillic alphabet discussed earlier), as being different systems formed from 2 very different civilizational origins. Even just the letter H and it's sound and the Croatian digraphs are analogous to how the different calendars use different verifiable systems/rules.

    Jumping forward to the next century, an example during the early 1990's Serbian ethnic cleansing and war campaigns in Croatia, especially in the town of Vukovar. The very first things the Serb Yugoslav and Serb nationalist chetnik soldiers did (seen above proudly holding the Serbian church flag in the aftermath of Vukovar)...was tear down Croatian signs and replace them with Serb Cyrillic signs and/or Serb Cyrillic spray painting. These after the fact series of events speak volumes on this topic. (The Serb on the far left is the bestest, fastest raper east of Kosovo fyi, seen spotting a fresh toothless granny and a nice piece of pork shank amongst the rubble to take back to Kosovo, then rape some Albanians). Related:

    I updated this post with the above images and following information, which sheds even more light on the previous images and information discussed. Even just these 3 literary works again show the natural fluid progression of the Croatian literary corpus from the middle ages and up to today and it's direct connection with other Slavic languages speaking and Latin script/alphabet writing nations such as Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenians, their dialects, their likewise belief in the existence of the voiceless velar fricative/H sound. Even just these 3 literary books show the similarities between all these national alphabets/orthogrpahies because of the same common Latin lingua franca speaking civilizational and cultural history that they all emerged from, which was responsible for the emergence of their national Latin script alphabets in the first place.

    Firstly, from the left is the first printed novel in Croatian by Croatian Renaissance writer Petar Zoranić, entitled Planine it was published in 1569; next is a five-language dictionary (Latin, Italian, Croatian, Hungarian, German) published in 1595 by Faust Vrančić, (which also included a documented list of over 300 loanwords in Hungarian that were borrowed from Croatian, the Hungarian language also accepted his suggestions, for example, the usage of ly, ny, sz, and cz. It was also the very first dictionary of the Hungarian language), and thirdly a huge Latin-Croatian dictionary "Gazophylacium" published in 1740, but actually written a century earlier by Ivan Belostenac. (about 40,000 words at 2,000 pages of text) Gazophylacium is also particularly important for its tridialectical concept which has remained a part of the Croatian standard even to this day. (The modern Croatian standard language includes words and elements from all 3 of our historical dialects, dialects that were only published as Croatian and were only part of the Croatian literary past) The point of mentioning just these 3 written works is because even though they weren't an official standard and the orthography was not standardized yet, (although the same sound structure, including the "H" sound, was represented), yet all 3 dialects were regarded as comprising the Croatian language. (The other languages mentioned also didn't standardize their alphabets and languages yet, but they likewise also adopted Latin alphabets for the reasons already discussed) This is very important to note, because you can even these days come across these non-standard dialects because Croatian dialects actually invoke "past glory" and medieval culture; they were speeches of advanced towns in Croatia, particularly on the coast, so even today you can come across instances of them, even celebrated as a part of Croatia's rich dialectical past. All 3 dialects through the centuries were considered as comprising the Croatian language by the various authors.

    On that note, just as the previously mentioned Poles, Czechs, Slovaks and Slovenians likewise also have their dialectical history, so too does the Croatian language. A history where todays Croatian language incorporates words from all 3 into todays Croatian standard language. (and words which are not part of the Serb literary corpus either) Even more importantly to note, the modern Croat/Polish/Czech/Slovak/Slovenian standard languages/script/alphabets, and this is fact and undeniable, are the direct result of their common Latin lingua franca past, their literary corpus/scripts/alphabets emerge from the same cultural milieu in the linear literary and civilizational process, all partaking of the same facets of that civilizational history and intellectual life which greatly affected their literary history, ie; the Renaissance, humanism philosophies, from the same medieval movements..gothic, pre-romanesque, baroque, classicist literary, artistic and political developments, age of enlightenment history etc. There simply is no contradiction or friction between their cultural backdrops, civilizational history and their languages/alphabets/scripts. Their alphabets/scripts are synonymous with each of their cultural history, this is why the Croats nor the above mentioned nations and their languages/alphabets were ever in need of a character like the 19th century V.K. That's because none of us needed a character who would take on the role of a "a major reformer"(although "destroyer" would be a more accurate term as already shown) who would completely abandon the literary history and alphabet/script realities of his time. Knowing this, neither the Croatian literary history and centuries long literary corpus nor these other countries have at any time a history of transforming their alphabet by orienting them towards another foreign civilizational/literary/alphabet-script continuity. (This is an important fact that must not be forgotten, because as shown and explained with proofs here a number of times already, the truth is that the 19th century Serb writer V.K. did in fact "destroy" the in use and Serb religion blessed Serb language and alphabet that was was being used to published with as the official Serb alphabet during his time, we have seen that V.K. did in fact amputate by 1/2 the in use official Serb Cyillic alphabet and proceeded to invent a new unrecognizable Serb Cyrillic alphabet and without the "H" sound. Whereas Ljudevit Gaj only tweaked the few sounds that were already there and being published with for centuries, and only tweaking them as to how they would be represented, (diacritics/digraphs), in the end the number of 30 sounds and the sound structure continuity was not touched whatsoever, as in no deleting anything but rather just how a few of them would be represented. And in the process he used as his guidelines and foundation only the whole Croatian literary corpus that preceded him and only that, all the 30 sounds remained unaffected

    Even today and for these reasons the Croatian language/alphabet/orthography and of these mentioned nations are only in need of the one standard alphabet for our language because it is the sum of our dialectical past and cultural/civilizational past and heritage. After all, even today for any Croats/Czechs/Slovaks/Slovenians or Poles to use an alphabet/script in our languages that was not a part of our own common civilizational/literary heritage would in reality be tantamount to self-defeatism, negating our unique heritage, accepting an opposite and products of a very different civilizational history and so instead use their literary corpus against our very own, in effect we would be using the product of another peoples history and civilizational heritage to spit on ourselves. That is quite simply a self-implosion and absurdity, you see using the literary corpus of a foreign civilizational process against our very own unique rich literary past would be literary history suicide, it would be burning the centuries old books written by our very own literary figures, authors and academics and the literary/civilizational process they were a part of which brought us to where we are today, it would even be rubbing manure into the pages of their books, even rubbing manure into our very own books and literary/cultural heritage. How can a nation/people properly function if going to and fro using foreign and contradictory civilizational/literary histories against their very own personal civilizational/literary heritage. It would be a recipe for nonsense, chaos and absurdity, an abnormality very much like a literary/cultural schizophrenia. Using contradictory alphabet systems from different civilizational origins and experiences will just result in a negation and denigration of one's very own heritage and identity, in essence an ongoing self-character assassination. In summary, Croatian/Polish/Czech/Slovak/Slovenian languages (which also always believed in the "H" sound from the very beginning btw) and our Latin script linear literary, alphabet and orthography history and dialects are "directly related to the literary/civilizational/cultural heritage that we emerged from", our Latin script national alphabets are synonymous with our civilizational history and corresponding cultural milieu, (it is primarily for this reason that we also attained our common yet unique contributions during the Renaissance, humanist philosophies, late medieval pre-romanesque, gothic, baroque era movements, classicist literary, artistic and political developments and age of enlightenment history etc, this is also why a number of our diacritic letters are very similar and in some cases even the same)...Each one of us have the same long progressive history using Latin script and our literary corpus within that civilizational world shows us this, (we didn't just start writing in the recent past after all, just as Russians, Bulgarians, Belarusians and Ukrainians likewise cherish and promote their standard national Cyrillic scripts and alphabets which emerged from their own personal civilizational  history and cultural milieu), so there really was no need at any time for a major reformer character to abruptly discard our linear literary heritage and so today use a foreign inspired and contradictory civilizational/literary history to constantly negate ourselves and our national identity. More on this later.

    So boys and girls, folks and folkettes, up to now you've soaked in a lot of information that is probably all new to you, but before finishing reading this fact filled and illuminating post.. (You're almost there, not much more to go, just a little bit're almost there)...perhaps a sidenote interesting piece of information regarding the question of "Why the existence of digraphs in the first place".  "Why the digraphs? Who, Where, When and Why the digraphs?"  Well, funny that you should ask boys and girls, and here's the very brief and interesting explanation behind this Croatian (and other Latin script written Slavic languages) ...feature.

    Digraphs, you see boys and girls, folks and folkettes (and diacritics to a lesser extent)...are actually a direct result of a Slavic language (Croatian in this case) being translated into Latin script from it's precursor and original first Slavic script and alphabet.  The oldest Slavic languages alphabet and script used and known, that being Glagolitic.  A digraph is a direct result, and today a constant reminder, of a Slavic language being translated from it's original written script into a Latin script.  Today, (and especially from the time of Ljudevit Gaj as you know by now)...the Croatian alphabet, along with the Czech, Slovak, Polish etc Slavic Latin script alphabets contain Digraphs. It's all just part of the Slavic languages to Latin script alphabet history and continuum.  How is that you may wonder?.....

     Source: Relationship of Cyrillic and Glagolitic scripts

    "......The reason why Greek-derived Cyrillic script spread so quickly in the lands of Slavia Orthodoxa is because it had the benefit of replacing an alphabet that was specifically designed to fit the sound system of Slavic speech. This leads to the conclusion that Cyrillic was but a mere transliteration of older Glagolitic alphabet. As a comparison, Slavic lands using the Latin alphabet (West Slavic languages, as well as Slovene and Croatian) took longer to adapt Roman alphabet precisely and systematically for their local needs, inventing special digraphs and diacritics for Slavic phonemes (character sounds) only with the advent of printing in the 16th century....."

    In case the reader didn't quite get the gist of it, let me elaborate. Very simply, the Cyrillic script alphabet was specifically made and designed to replace the originally used Glagolitic alphabet, this included some editing and making new Cryillic characters, but essentially it was s fairly simple process of replacing one with the other one, characters designed to look however they wanted.  On the other hand, those Slavic nations who were part of the Latin 'lingua franca' world through the middle ages, it was more difficult and a longer process.  By the time that those nations were starting to overwhelmingly use Latin script alphabets for their respective languages, the new Slavic Latin script alphabets could be made with only the Latin characters available to them at the time, then only later inventing ways of expressing sounds that Latin did not use or have characters for.  This is how diacritics and digraphs started being invented and came to be. So basically, this means that when one encounters a digraph in a Slavic language Latin script based alphabet, a digraph is a plainly visible and constant reminder of the different route and history that the language and people passed through. A process and continuity that ultimately reaches far back to the first recorded Slavic written material.  In summary, a Latin script digraph is a characteristic and visual reminder of the direct relationship and process of translating a Slavic language from the first and original Slavic alphabet (Glagolitic) to then being written in a Latin script alphabet.

    However, perhaps most interesting about this topic is this. The Glagolitic alphabet itself contained....get ready.....digaphs!  Yes...digraphs. Most notably the Glagolitic symbol/character for the modern English 'Y' sound. (In the Croatian alphabet written as 'J')....which is represented in the Glagolitic alphabet as 'Yeri'. (Amazing, 2 letters used to make 1 sound in original Glagolitic script)  Also, coincidentally, the Russian Cyrillic alphabet also kept this special digraph feature that was inherent from the original Glagolitic alphabet, that being their character for the same sound/letter 'Yer'. (Amazing again)  How about that? You learn something new everyday. That's a very important fact boys and girls. It also visually shows and reminds one that the Slavic language alphabet they are reading and writing with evolved directly from the original Glagolitic alphabet. This same Russian example is also seen in the Belarusian Cyrillic alphabet. Basically, it shows that all Slavic language Cyrillic alphabets have just 1 character for every one sound, that this was the easiest and most common route, but the Russian cyrillic alphabet (and Belarus) decided to continue to use an instance of a digraph anyway.....continuity.

    A 1909 poster commemorating the raising of "Gajeva Doma" (Gaj's Home). A Croatian literature and educational center celebrating the history of Croatian language revival and the 100th anniversary of Ljudevit Gaj's birth. 

    A painting by Dragutin Weingärtner 1885, entitled "The Session of the Croatian Assembly in 1848", is kept in the Varaždin Town Museum. The flag hoisted is the tricolor with the coat of arms of the Croatian Triune Kingdom. The scene shows the Croatian Ban (Viceroy/Governor) Josip Jelačić addressing the MP's of the National Assembly on July 4th, regarding support for homeland defence and arming the Croatian Army. (Ljudevit Gaj who was present at the session is portrayed just right of center with raised hand)

    Ljudevit Gaj street downtown in the capital city of Zagreb. The Croatian alphabet and Ljudevit Gaj's orthography work, as well as Slovene, Polish and Slovak orthographies, can be described as being loosely based on Czech orthography, in that they have a Latin language and Latin script history, use similar diacritics and also have a similar relationship between the letters and the sounds they represent, ie; diacritics to standard Latin letters for expressing sounds which are foreign to the Latin language, but also using some digraphs. And just as in the other national alphabets mentioned, the Croatian alphabet went through periods during its development through the centuries just as the Czech orthographic system did. The role of Ljudevit Gaj and his literary/linguist supporters can very much be likened to the role of later Czech linguists such as Josef Dobrovský, who similarly during the period of the Czech National Revival (late 18th century to the first half of the 19th century), just as Ljudevit Gaj's work he likewise published his grammar of Czech, Lehrgebäude der Böhmischen Sprache (1809; “Learning System of the Bohemian Language”), codified the Czech language alphabet and brought order to the minor inconsistencies that had been neglected in the previous 150 years, and his reforms in the orthography principles including sound structure principles have also remained in effect right up to the present day

    So boys and promised at the beginning of this post, now you will know that this view of the page shown at the beginning of this post, is actually  page 2  from Vuk Karadzic's dictionary which was published in 1852. A page added as a guide to translating between languages and their script characters. This page was added into his Serbian dictionary by Vuk Kardzic himself.  (Direct from the horses mouth so to speak) Correct characters/script and importantly in the correct column number 2.  No mixed up pieces of this and that characters that neither Serbs used nor Ljudevit Gaj had designed or used. (This page from Vuk Karadzic's own dictionary is something Serbs never talk about, just always the faked never used and falsely attributed scripts and a bunch of made up stories as well like I described previously) So in the end, if up to here you haven't grasped, understood or read all or any of the text written, you will at least now know this. That even Vuk Karadzic in his 1852 dictionary finally admitted by correcting his previous erroneous/made up Latin script alphabets and got it right by including Ljudevit Gaj's/Croatian correct Latin alphabet and script. Also since Vuk Karadzic had decided to include other languages and their scripts, most importantly on page number 2 assigning Lj udevit Gaj's orthography correctly under it's own "Croatian alphabet and script" column number 2 in his 1852 updated publication of his Serbian dictionary. (Including and recognizing the letter "H" sound btw, which Croatians have always used and believed in since before the days of the first Croatian Kings and Queens.

     As an ending interesting food for thought sidenote, Vuk Karadzic's finalized Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was not adopted in Serbia until 1868, 4 years after his death. The language and cyrillic script reforms proposed by Karadzic were not popular with the Serbian Orthodox Church nor with the nobility. Milos Obrenovic I, Prince of Serbia after the success of the second Serbian uprising, forbade Karadzic to publish using his new cyrillic script in Serbia. He was accused of turning Serbian into a language of cowherds and swineherds. His addition of the "J" from the Roman alphabet made some see him a traitor and spy for the Hapsburg (Austrian) Empire. It was still even many years later until Latin script was even starting to be dabbled with in the Serbian language and in Serbia.  Today Serbian cyrillic is once again the official script of Serbia, however many Serbs still do not know how to read or write using the script that Vuk Karadzic made for them, instead many using the Croatian alphabet.. Ljudevit Gaj's work was accepted and put into use in a short time, and was used for publishing almost immediately.  He died peacefully in Zagreb in 1872 at the age of 62 and is buried in famous Mirogoj Cemetery. Today near the crematorium grounds of the cemetery there are shaded groves which are named after him as well, the Gaj urni or Gaj's urns. (Been to Mirogoj, lots of famous and important people buried there and I took plenty of photos of amazing artwork, monuments and architecture. It has more the feeling of a "Hall of Fame"than just your typical cemetery) One of the less well known facts however, is that the cemetery was created in 1876 on a plot of land that was actually owned by Ljudevit Gaj himself....

    .......  In 1852 Ljudevit bought a small forest and vineyard named Herešinec on the hill northeast of Zagreb, on the slopes of Medvednica Mountain. He also had the entire land levelled, all the ditches and gullies the water from mountain Medvednica was running through, and cleared the part of the vineyard and forest. Afterwards he organized the construction of a road and built a beautiful garden, which were the last two parts of the project. This piece of property, where he spent the final years of his life at his summer mansion, he named Mirogoj, according to the name of the former owner of part of the land, Miroslav Herkul Mirogojski, one of the founders of the convent in Remete. The cemetery is considered to be one of the most beautiful cemetery parks in Europe and because of its elaborate arcades, cupolas and design and the numerous famous final resting places there, it numbers among the more noteworthy historic landmarks in the City of Zagreb.

    In retrospect, as a program to unite all the South Slavs politically and culturally, the Illyrian movement would rate on the success scale about a 5. During his time the Croatian language and accompanying alphabet orthography also confirmed and solidified the centuries of Croatian Latin script heritage, but it was not accepted by the Orthodox Cyrillic readers and writers. (although after his death the Croatian alphabet and orthography did go on to affect a portion of the Orthodox Cyrillic nations, mainly the Montengrins, Bosnians and Serbs, that is why even to this day the Croatian alphabet along with it's inclusion of digraphs and especially the letter/sound of "H" inherent in Croatian language, it can still be called "Gajica", ie. "Gaj's Latin Alphabet") However, even after the Illyrian movement had ended, it nonetheless accomplished it's first and most important goal. As a Croatian national program and movement contributing to the Croatian standardized language, alphabet, cultural and literary history, the achievements of the early Illyrian Movement would undoubtedly rank a 10 on the success scale.

    Why, it seems here that the previous spontaneously all mixed and made up and never used or published alphabetic scripts are gone, disappeared, never to be seen or heard from again like scurvy, like New Coke, like men's knee high socks, like the Ford Pinto, like permed hairstyles for men. Here in 1852 we see the Croatian column correctly containing the correct alphabetical Latin script characters that Ljudevit Gaj's initial standardization included from 22 years previous and from his "Danica" publications in 1836-38. This is because, as already mentioned at the beginning of this post, it was not Ljudevit Gaj, it was not any Croatian literary figures at all in that time or before, that traveled to Serbia to borrow from their centuries of dictionaries and grammars. It was not the Croatians who chopped 25 letters from their alphabet and then adding more letters to conform to some sort of Serbo reading and writing standards. As shown throughout here the Croatian alphabet followed it's own course and continuum all along, used in publishing, it never went anywhere, it stayed and never budged and wasn't newly invented in the 19th century from nowhere by one individual. This truth is vindicated again by the below page from Karadzic's very own publication.

    Non-Serbo alphabets and scripts highlighted in yellow. (Don't ask me whether he thought the English language uses the letter "A" or "H" because according to the page they do not. (How the hell were the English supposed to sing the "Happy Birthday song"?)...did Slovakian exist, why he put 3 Cyrillic versions in the Serbo column, overcompensating?, or any other plethora of questions. (although because of Vuk's nationalistic agenda seeping into his written works some other things look suspect to me as well. Which country is Gall? Galicia?...which language in the area of Galicia? Do they have "H" sounds in Galicia? Gaul?..which language in Gaul? Bohemian is Czech and Carniolan is Slovenian so why not title the column correctly? anyway...). He wasn't even sure if the "H" sound existed for many years and in the beginning was positive that it didn't exist, so I really don't care and it doesn't concern me. This post is only concerning the true history of the Croatian Latin script alphabet and literary history)

    Early 19th century one and only official Serb alphabet. (Oops, this is upside down. It must look like a jumbled and confusing set of mixed up unreadable ligatures and sounds to you. Just proceed to the next Serb alphabet image)

    Early 19th century one and only official Serb alphabet. (Right side up and much more coherent and clear this time). Before the major reforms and changes by V.K in the early 19th century, the Slavoserbian language and it's accompanying alphabet seen below, vis-a-vis the already in existence Croatian literary and alphabet history and continuum, can be considered analagous to the Hindi-Urdu languages controversy. Meaning, even though Croatian and Serbian both stem from the general Slavic like other Slavic languages, each had their own literary histories, alphabet continuity, script formation and in the case of Croatian, grammar/dictionary history as well. This below seen Slavoserbian alphabet abandoned by V.K. in the early 19th century was continued in use in Serbia even up to the 1880's, it was the language and alphabet continuity of Serbs until it was replaced by V.K.'s new Serb Cyrillic in the 1880's.

    Once again, the one and only Serbo alphabet at the time of Vuk Karadzic containing 49 cyrillic letters. (Take a very close again, zoom in if you have to. Pay particular attention to the number of ligatures and of their appearance and shape). The Croatian script and alphabet continuum has already been briefly shown up to the time of this pre-V.K. Serbo alphabet, even going back centuries. Whereas the work of Ljudevit Gaj and his colleagues only continued the natural centuries long continuum of Croatian literary and orthographic history, (Especially continuing the ideas of  his predecessor from the 17th century, Pavao Ritter Vitezović) has been shown that it never diverted or transformed into or towards any other system, instead following it's own path and natural progression all along. The Serbo alphabet at the time of Vuk Karadzic containing 49 Cyrillic letters. V.K. admitted that he worked hard to distance his new reformed/transformed (butchered is a term that could also be used) alphabet from Serbo-Slavonic and Russian. There were actually  four types of literary languages at the time of V.K.: Serbian Church Slavonic, folk, Russian Church Slavonic and Slavo-Serbian and the letters had no vocal basis. Sometimes even more than 49 letters could be used. The dysfunctionality, disunity, arbitrariness and instability of the language as a system were a source of great difficulties and a source of embarrassment. Furthermore, this language had no defined grammar, and it was used in a form that suited whoever used it. The alphabet seen above and it's accompanying phonology was in effect a disaster. V.K. admitted that he worked hard to distance his new reformed Cyrillic alphabet and language from Serbo-Slavonic and Russian and the rules of eastern Orthodox Cyrillic nations and culture. The Croatian literary and alphabet history has always just followed it's own course through the centuries and was never in need of others making up fake alphabets and presenting them as Croatian.

    Here is V.K's first Serbian dictionary with his brand new Serb cyrillic alphabet and his arbitrarily faked alphabets page image that was the catalyst for this post, I added it here again so you don't have to waste time scrolling up and down this long post comparing back and forth. Throughout this post I have discussed and explained the very obvious discrepancies pointed out, or better said, the intentional fabricated misinformation and untrue alphabet representations vis-a-vis the real historical events of the Croatian language and alphabet.  I've explained the history of the Croatian language and alphabet contimuum, how Ljudevit Gaj included digraphs and diacritics from his 1830  "Croatian Orthography" and later "Danica" publications, especially between the years 1836-38. I've even explained and shown how the Croatian alphabet included Č, Ć, Š, Ž, (as well as the letter/sound of "H") into the Croatian alphabet well before the mixed up fake combinations seen above which were never used by anyone. (I wonder why the author didn't just go all out and include Greek, Chinese and Japanese character combinations into the fake Croatian column, it would have been the same difference. How he came to the conclusion that he was to be an authority and decide which fake alphabets and graphemes of other nations and their languages to portray in his book is laughable, mixing orthographic rules and graphemes at will and portraying it as something real. Next time the reader/čitač comes across the above faked alphabets page image at some Serbo site, they can now laugh and see it for what it really is...or isn't actually. It was just some spontaneously made up columns ideas in ol' V.K.'s mind. The correct version of the Croatian alphabet being used at the time is the one portrayed in VK.'s 1852 book page seen previously)

    Correct digraphs and diacritics added by Ljudevit Gaj into the Croatian alphabet from Croatian literary history (used in various Croatian Latin grapheme written works, dictionaries, grammars, lexicographical material etc) and used in his Danica publications in 1836-38, but arbitrarily portrayed wrongly and erroneous in V.K.'s  fake jumbled 1841 alphabets page image of VK.'s new first Serbian dictionary book.

    I decided to also add this here because it condenses pretty well all the information you've read up to this point. Compared to the previous 2 images, one can immediately see the fluid natural continuum of the Croatian alphabet over the centuries, focusing on the circled graphemes of the fake Croatian column from V.K.'s 1841 presentation, especially the digraphs and diacritics. Here, from the time of Pavao Ritter Vitezović in the 17th century up to the time and work of Ljudevit Gaj, one immediately can see the ligatures for the ligatures/phonemes (characters for the sounds) that Ljudevit Gaj incorporated and used for the Croatian language alphabet. You can see the characters he used in 1830 for the "Croatian Orthography" publication. You can see the progression, minor tweaking/fine tuning of the Croatian alphabet up to the digraphs he used from previous Croatian literary corpus and the diacritics from Czech and Polish he decided to include for the previous same continuously used sounds and then published in 1836-38. (alternately used tj/ć to just ć, dž, š, č, ž, lj, dj, nj etc, with dž also entering the Slovak alphabet). I already included examples at the beginning of this post. (The last row has nothing to do with character representation but rather spelling rules options. Namely vowels before the letter "R" in words are omitted in accordance with the middle ages Croatian spelling tradition, such as our name "Hrvatska" from the Baška tablet example using a break device character. Again, one immediately can see the errors and sham that is presented as the Croatian column in the previous faked jumbled alphabets column from V.K.'s new 1841 first ever Serbian dictionary. I don't think I need to tell you who's alphabet, script, orthography and graphemes/characters the Croatian language uses now, used at the time period in question and which alphabet was being continually improved for many centuries, all this well before V.K. started printing fake alphabets and not believing in sounds. When again looking at the previous 2 images of the Serbo alphabet, V.K.'s original starting point, then the 1841 page and finally the 1852 page eventually shown from his book containing the correct and real Croatian alphabet from Ljudevit Gaj's time and work, then instead an eye opening revelation comes into view, we see this subject in a clearer perspective and understanding. (which also shows that what was insinuated at some of the Serbo chit-chat sites I came actually proven to be quite the opposite. One can not take apart a stove, throw away half of it and make it a toaster and then tell people or insinuate you invented a toaster and this is what the toaster looks like that the people a few blocks down the road are using, when the people living there have already been making toast in a toaster for centuries before you were born)

    The fluid natural progression of the Croatian alphabet sound structure up to the digraphs Ljudevit Gaj used from the previous centuries long Croatian literary corpus and the diacritics from Czech and Polish he decided to include for the previous same continuously used sounds and then published in 1836-38. (alternately used tj/ć to just ć, dž, š, č, ž, lj, dj, nj etc, with dž also entering the Slovak alphabet). Each standard alphabetic vowel and consonant sound from previous Croatian literary history was simply carried forward with absolutely no sounds added or taken away at any time. From left to right: Column 1- today's Croatian alphabet. (Column 2- International Phonetic Alphabet symbol). Column 3- written version from his Brief Basics of the Croatian-Slavonic Orthography (1830). 4- Brief Basics of the Croatian-Slavonic Orthography printed published version (1830). 5-  from his published spelling materials adustments in 1835. His solutions for the Croatian language alphabet which started out in 1830 were from the previous centuries Croatian literary history and highly influenced according to Vitezović's ideal (one grapheme for a single phoneme, also previously prescribed by Czech Jan Hus) and it was shortly later inspired also by the medieval Croatian Glagolitic script (which was the very first Croatian alphabet which also contained digraphs), then was later simultaneously used as and developed as a the Croatian Illyrian movement alphabet also, after the Revolutions of 1848 and end of the Illyrian and Pan-Slavic Movements in Europe it just simply continued onward as the foundation for today's Croatian alphabet. The Croatian linear literary continuity through the centuries.

    A quick reminder from V.K's very own same updated 1852 first Serbian dictionary, but this time with the correct Croatian Latin grapheme alphabet (including digraphs and diacritics and the "H" of course according to the work of Ljudevit Gaj from the 1830's) and the Serbian cyrillic alphabet to the far left. By his very own admission the columns speak for themselves. (the previously mentioned discrepancies in the other languages alphabet columns is not my department at this point)

    The reader can ask a question here, seeing the Croatian language, and especially the Croatian Latin alphabet graphemes continuity up to this point. The reader can ask "Did the Croatian alphabet continuum reach a point where it started to use the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet and orthography we see being used in Serbia and by Serb literati in the early 19th century?" Absolutely not of course. "Before V.K. transformed the Serb Cyrillic alphabet, were Croatians, Croatian literati or the Croatian literary corpus at any time using it also?"  "Was Croatian also being written using the Serbian alphabet V.K. started off with? " Of course not again. "Who's alphabet, orthography and literary corpus were we using all along if not the Serbian of V.K.'s alphabet starting point?"..."Did the work of Ljudevit Gaj's predecessors (Vitezović and the many others) over time evolve to become the alphabet that V.K. was using at first as his starting point?..."Was Ljudevit Gaj chopping off almost half the letters/sounds from the Croatian alphabet of his starting point?" ...Of course not again, we know that the Croatian alphabet and orthography did not come from the same source that V.K. started from. Vitezović was standardizing Croatian Latin alphabet as well over 160 years before Ljudevit Gaj and he was not concerned with what the Serb Cyrillic route was taking either. The Czechs, Slovaks, Poles and others also never at any time used the orthography or the Serb Cyrillic alphabet that was being used in Serbia and by Serbs pre-V.K. Hmmm?

    Croatian writer, historian, linguist and publisher Pavao Ritter Vitezović. He played an influential role in Ljudevit Gaj's future Croatian language and alphabet standardizing work. The Croatian alphabet and Ljudevit Gaj's orthography work, as well as Slovene, Polish and Slovak orthographies, can also be described as being loosely based on Czech orthography, in that they have a Latin language and Latin script history, use similar diacritics and also have a similar relationship between the letters and the sounds they represent, ie; diacritics to standard Latin letters for expressing sounds which are foreign to the Latin language, but also using some digraphs. And just as in the other national alphabets mentioned, the Croatian alphabet went through periods during its development through the centuries just as the Czech orthographic system did. The role of Ljudevit Gaj and his literary/linguist supporters can very much be likened to the role of later Czech linguists such as Josef Dobrovský, who similarly during the period of the Czech National Revival (late 18th century to the first half of the 19th century), just as Ljudevit Gaj's work he likewise published his grammar of Czech, Lehrgebäude der Böhmischen Sprache (1809; “Learning System of the Bohemian Language”), codified the Czech language alphabet and brought order to the minor inconsistencies that had been neglected in the previous 150 years, and his reforms in the orthography principles including sound structure principles have also remained in effect right up to the present day

    Above is an image of Pavao Ritter Vitezović from around 1690. I already near the beginning of this post added an image from a publication of his. As already mentioned and shown earlier, Vitezović was not the only one, but he was the main inspiration and influence on the future standardizing work of the young Ljudevit Gaj. It was Vitezović who proposed an idea for an orthography solution for the Croatian language that every sound should have only one letter, and it was this idea that later inspired the linguist Ljudevit Gaj to start work to reform the Croatian variant of Latin script and create Gaj's Latin alphabet, and continue work on how to represent the already existing sounds. To publish material in an eventual single Croatian standard alphabet. Vitezović wrote widely on the topic of Croatian history, being well known for his Latin work Croatia rediviva (Croatia revived) in 1700. More information on PowerPoint at Below I present the cover of his work from 1684 "Odiljenje Sigetsko", which recounts the life and heroism of Croatian Prince and nobleman Nikola Šubić Zrinski, who became a Croatian and Hungarian national hero and famous throughout all of Europe because of the Siege of Sziget. The book also deals with the themes of how Croatians arose in unison to defend their homes and saved the Habsburg empire from the Ottoman Jihads....

    .....However, the main point is to show yet another obvious instance of how the Croatan Latin script alphabet was a process of the same continuity up to the time of Ljudevit Gaj and to today. The natural same fluid sound structure and character representation that that never diverged towards another alphabet or alphabet script. Any person semi-fluent in Croatian can read and understand what is written even before Ljudevit Gaj's final character tweaking and standardizing. It is another example of how the Croatian alphabet continued it's own course all along, just as the alphabet of any other European language and alphabet has, ie: never diverting to be butchered, or diverge towards another alphabet sound structure script or orthography. Just as in the case of Old English to Middle English to Modern English, or Old French, Old German, Old Polish etc, the Croatian Latin alphabet and script continuum has followed it's own progressive path all along also. The other mentioned European alphabets and their scripts are also the product of all their dialects and preceding centuries of continuity just as in the Croatian case, ie: none of them oriented towards another orthographic system and turned into something that is unrecognizable today. (I added the red highlights just to show that the words "Croatian", and so the alphabet, has always included the "H" sound as well)

    Just as in the case of Old English to Middle English to Modern English, or Old French, Old German, Old Polish etc, through the centuries their alphabet, orthography, dialectical, character representation/script etc, has evolved naturally as a fluid progression continuity through the centuries to their modern day alphabets. Slight adjustments made without diverging towards another orthographic system or script or being dramatically changed overnight from something unrecognizable and very different from today. They are a single orthographic/dialectical/script momentum process that never diverted, just as in the Croatian case. (As already mentioned, the fact that these and other European languages have from the very beginning used Latin script during their literary history through the centuries, is a major factor) This civilizational connection between the Croatian language and the use of it's evolving Latin script through the centuries in recording the Croatian literary corpus is cultural and in natural harmony, in harmony like...peanut butter and jam. (Based on the information shown thus far, when Serbs use the Croatian alphabet instead of their national Serbian cyrillic script, the civilizational/cultural/literary connection and harmony is more like...a peanut butter and salt sandwich which is absurd and self-abuse while eating)

    *One can then plainly see, and knowing that since at least the 14th century, it is only the Croatian language that started a progressive and unwavering continuity of using Latin script in writing and printing the Croatian literary corpus in all it's dialects. It is also plain to see that this increasing use of strictly Latin script in writing the Croatian language and it's literature....."is directly connected to Croatia's long literary, cultural and western European civilizational history", ie: also a "constant natural cultural feature" that recalls our very long western European civilizational history and our place in it. This is also an important fact to remember because as shown Serbia and Serbian literature DOES NOT have this same connection or continuity at all, but rather Serbian culture and literary history was influenced instead by something else entirely, it instead followed a much different civilizational route with very different results.

    The above information and the previous 5 alphabet images (especially the pre-V.K. Serbo alphabet image) far pretty well simplifies a lot of the information I've presented so far. Namely, in the centuries previous to Ljudevit Gaj, the Croatian dialects and language all used the same Latin letters for the common Croatian sounds. Sounds that are inherent in basically all Slavic (and even non-Slavic/European) languages, the vowels and numerous common consonants such as A, B, C, D, F, G, K, L, M, N, V, S, T, Z, I, O, U, H..etc and so on. (Especially "H" boys and girls, it's very important to remember that "H" has been a very important letter and sound in the Croatian language and alphabet since day one, since way before even Hamburgers and Hren were invented) It is only the above shown specific sounds of the Croatian language, (and some other Slavic languages) that needed to be adjusted only as to how best to represent them in a final standard, using diacritics and/or digraphs. (Previously touched upon but not shown in the above chart, recall that Ljudevit Gaj from the start in "Croatian Orthography" of 1830 also included the ligature "J" for the "Y" sound, this ligature he borrowed from the Polish alphabet for the same sound also but which was already used in Croatian literary history for centuries as well. He chose this Polish version J because the famous Croatian baroque poet Ivan Gundulić had used it, he also borrowed the Ć representative ligature for the equivalent same sound because of the literary, cultural and western Latin script ties between Croatians and the Poles, much like the Czech ligature borrowings already discussed) So, above we see the route those centrally important sounds took, how they were represented previously up to the time of  Ljudevit Gaj, and then even after him, including even still up to today. (Continuity of the sounds, natural progression of the ligatures to represent them through the centuries,(including the "H" a very important sound in Croatian)... no amount of 25 letters and sounds being chopped off as in the Serbo case, not even one, of course no inclusion of Cyrillic letters into our Latin ligature alphabet either, and also importantly never once using any Serbo written material to borrow from for dictionaries, grammars, orthography rules etc, no need of any letters to be omitted or added because the continuity was already there all along. Compare once again the pre-V.K. official Serbian 49 letter alphabet and the plain to see centuries of Croatian alphabet evolution and continuity)  One then sees the Croatian alphabetical continuum much more clearly,  that there was no major changes or drastic reformulations in writing Croatian through the centuries. It is mainly the above few sounds and how to represent them in a final form that is the central feature and heritage of the Croatian alphabet and language, which was the contribution of Ljudevit Gaj...."continuity".

    The few examples shown so far, and other numerous examples available at the links, show that the Croatian Latin script literary corpus through the centuries always possessed the basic framework and sound structure of even today. The basic structure and components stayed the same throughout all that time. It was only only how to standardize a few sounds, ie: which Latin characters to choose from which would represent the few sounds, which could be "slightly" different from century to century or one part of the Croatian lands to another. This again is where the final standardizing/tweaking of Ljudevit Gaj comes into the Croatian literary historical chapter. We see this obvious and centuries long fluid progression, civilizational process and literary/script/orthography natural continuity even today.....

    I could go on and on with numerous similar examples from around the world proving my points shown here. Even today in Russia they know reality and some of the history and terms I've discussed here. Below is the languages option page from VK, it's the largest European online social networking service based in St. Petersburg, Russia. It is available in several languages, but is especially popular among Russian-speaking users. Let's get real when it comes to alphabet history and linear civilizational and literary corpus history of peoples. Nations always have their own centuries long alphabet and literary heritage continuity which has directly resulted in the alphabets they use today.


    For those unfamiliar with the term, above is another example of "fake", yet at the same time can also be a visualization and portrayal of the real Croatian alphabet continuum giving all fake Croatian alphabet columns a diving elbow drop from the top rope.

    Now one final close up look for the visually impaired or people who have to really, really squint. Below is the correct Croatian Latin script characters and alphabet in it's correct column, direct from the horses mouth so to speak. (Finally and eventually he got it right and gave up making faked alphabets in the Croatian column it seems). The fake Croatian Latin script alphabet is gone, as well as Mr Vuk's portrayed ("purported" in the page image at the start of this post) confusing and illogical Serb Latin.  Notice that the Croatian alphabet column is located between Scxerbiyeen and Bohemian (Czech)  I don't know where the Slovakian or Slovenian or other languages are. However, one thing especially can be learned from this fact filled and all encompassing post...even if I or anybody else was to give the purported page image even partial credence for bizarro-world devil's advocate argument's sake, one very important question then remains. The question is not concerning the Croatian alphabet column at all though, (Because in this post I've already shown using just a few examples, images and links to more information, that the standardizing work of Ljudevit Gaj on the Croatian Latin script alphabet continuum, with a few minor grapheme tweaks based on Czech orthography and Polish influence and already being published with 11 years previous starting in 1830 did not use the highlighted alluded to characters in any publication at any time)....but the hypothetical and logical question on the flip side is rather...If the portrayed Latin script for Vuk Karadzic's new reformed Serbian alphabet is directly from the horses mouth so to speak, then there can be no doubt about it, there is no argument and it is very plain for all to see..... THAT is the alphabet and Latin script system the Serbs were supposed to be using at that time, later and then naturally, according to V.K.'s very own presentation should be using even right now. This was the written law of V.K. after all.

    There's no other way to go around it, for arguements sake. (I'm not twisting meanings or words or anything like that, am I? In relation to the Serbo alphabet, in this scenario I'm assuming that V.K. must have known what he was talking about and what he was doing when he's especially purportedly presenting the finished product Serb Latin alphabet in his own book in 1841. Afterall, V.K. wouldn't put alphabets and ligatures in his very own book that nobody used.....would he?;)  Disregarding all the other columns, the impression is very plain to see then that the Serb Latin script that supposedly was slipped into his book in 1841 and supposedly written by Vuk Karadzic himself was already completed , standardized and ready for 1841.  As in completed, finished, standardized, ready to go, good for publishing books, pamphlets, national anthems, cook books, soccer game tickets, comics, Playboy magazine covers, poetry, dictionaries, grammars, train tickets, name it.  His choice of phonemes, ligatures and graphemes is completed. (It doesn't concern us here what he tried to pawn off as the Croatian alphabet in his 1841 book, he could have put Chinese, Japanese or Klingon characters, because I've shown and proven that it's fake in the face of the real events at that time.  All that concerns us here in this scenario equation is his Serbian Latin alphabet presented in 1841) His Serbian Cyrillic and Latin script was fully completed in 1841 is the impression that is being forwarded to the reader, including all the phonemes/sounds that it included. Well, congratulations, la di da, cest la vie, get out the party streamers, whistles and hats and bla bla bla.  Who am I to complain if those are the Serbo Cyrillic and Latin alphabets already completed in 1841? There you go, get out the kazoo, he supposedly made up a Serbo Latin equivalent in 1841 for his new Srb Cyrillic, it's just that they never, ever used it at any time whatsoever, just like we Croatians never used his fake Croatian column that is presented either. (We had our own literary history and alphabet thing going on remember?)  But in the end, who's alphabet in reality do they use, especially when they can't read Cyrillic, can't understand  printed Serbian? Not the one that is portrayed in that purported 1841 image, that's for sure. (see his updated 1852 book page image above) On the contrary it's the one that wasn't having humungous chunks being chopped off of it, the one that kept the natural continuum and course and didn't change orthographically or ligature wise towards any other orthography, phonology, script system or language. The faked alphabets page image that makes no mention of Ljudevit Gaj et al, are not the ones Croatians (nor even Serbs ever used)  Croatians still to this day use the one inspired, designed, modified and used by the non-existent Ljudevit Gaj.... See arrow below.  Ipso Facto. 

    The official page image below also from the horses mouth so to speak,  from 1852, also clarifies this point again and actually solidifies this fact. (The Croatian alphabet and the Latin script from Ljudevit Gaj's work continued it's natural continuum and is presented in that 1852 official page image below, it did not change or transform into something else, it contains the Croatian orthographic system, graphemes and ligatures that were even present in the 1830's and they stayed all along. (Recall, Ljudevit Gaj or the Croatian alphabet was not transforming with new sounds or having large chunks chopped off at any time, it's all about continuum. The faked alphabets page image from 1841 didn't even portray any of the verified Croatian alphabet realities ) It seems V.K. finally got it right in 1852 and admitted so in his very own book, with not a strange looking and mixed up fake Croatian alphabet and incorrect ligatures and graphemes, but with the proper one was that was devised by Ljudevit Gaj and in use already in the 1830's.  Yet nobody to this day has been able to find the peculiar real page source of the faked alphabets image at the start of this post, or probably more importantly, even any material written by any of the fake alphabets portrayed) If anything, based on what you know now, one can say V.K. and the Serbs have 2 fake Latin script alphabets they can use, but never have or ever do. (Remember, as shown Ljudevit Guy and the rest of the Croatian literati and linguists were doing there own thing with the Croatian alphabet years before the faked 1841 shams were supposedly slipped into V.K.'s  non-H sound grammar book) Now I do feel like that Ancient Aliens Debunked guy.

    (*Postscript - There are some internet Serbo historians who believe that every language/script column shown above actually should read "Serbic" all across the board. Yes that's right ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls, guys and dolls. That's not a typo. Does that sound strange or perhaps bizarre? How could this possibly be? Click Here for a good laugh and some very strange versions of history if you feel inclined. It's very plain to see, if you've read up to this point, that V.K. regarding the continuum of centuries of Croatian literary history, it's literary language and Latin script alphabet history, in a very short time attempted to play the part of a hocus-pocus library Cymothoa exigua it seems and usurp the literary continuum of other nations. Following the western Croatian/Slavic languages speaking nations phonology, orthography rules and literary continuums and distancing himself from Serbia's past and fellow orthodox/cyrillic nations literary heritage. However then even arbitrarily inventing made up jumbled erroneous alphabets that nobody used officially at any time and assigning them to nations as something real)

    I decided to add the updated version of the same faked alphabets page image because it is a more factual representation of how it rightfully should be presented. (It looks a lot better now if you ask me, feel free to use it for any future related blog posts of your own)

    V.K's very own same updated 1852 first Serbian dictionary, but this time with the correct Croatian Latin grapheme alphabet (including digraphs and diacritics and the "H" of course according to the work of Ljudevit Gaj from the 1830's) and the Serbian cyrillic alphabet to the far left. By his very own admission the columns speak for themselves. It should be pointed out again that the Croatian alphabet and Ljudevit Gaj's orthography work, as well as Slovene, Polish and Slovak orthographies, can be described as being loosely based on Czech orthography, in that they have a Latin language and Latin script history, use similar diacritics and also have a similar relationship between the letters and the sounds they represent, ie; diacritics to standard Latin letters for expressing sounds which are foreign to the Latin language, but also using some digraphs. And just as in the other national alphabets mentioned, the Croatian alphabet went through periods during its development through the centuries just as the Czech orthographic system did. The role of Ljudevit Gaj and his literary/linguist supporters can very much be likened to the role of later Czech linguists such as Josef Dobrovský, who similarly during the period of the Czech National Revival (late 18th century to the first half of the 19th century), just as Ljudevit Gaj's work he likewise published his grammar of Czech, Lehrgebäude der Böhmischen Sprache (1809; “Learning System of the Bohemian Language”), codified the Czech language alphabet and brought order to the minor inconsistencies that had been neglected in the previous 150 years, and his reforms in the orthography principles including sound structure principles have also remained in effect right up to the present day. 

    List of Croatian dictionaries:

     More information about the history of the Croatian language and script: _Ljudevit_Gaj


    Hrvatska gramatika. (Croatian Grammar) by Barić, Lončarić, Malić, Pavešić, Peti, Zečević and Znika, from 1997. This is the most recent complete up to date official Croatian Grammar textbook for the Croatian language. A lot of information about the history of the Croatian language and grammar which expands much more on the topics I've discussed so far. You can view and read it in it's entirety for free  HERE

    Considering all the facts presented up to this point, which has exposed a number of blatant fallacies as well as the people behind these fallacies in regards to Croatian literary heritage, Latin alphabet continuum and even just orthographic principles behind the alphabet, I lastly remind the reader of some final parting facts which give a new all encompassing perspective to ponder.  Regarding the Croatian language continuum as a whole, and even the past communist fabricated relic political umbrella term serbo-croatian or croato-serbian diasystem, (Which it was not as you will see, and could just as easily be extended to be called Sloveno-Montenegrin-Bulgarian, Serbo-Torlakian-Macedonian-Bulgarian, or Slovak-Polish, Russo-Polish-Ukrainian etc)....especially since Croatian language and literary history for a time passed into, through and out of the 20th century failed "Yugoslav experiment" unscathed and looking ever onward and forward.

    Firstly, throughout Croatian literary history, it is known and well documented that the Croatian language has  3 dialects. Those 3 dialects have been the spoken and written ways the Croatian language was communicated with since the appearance of written manuscripts, records and other written material. Cakavian and Kajkavian is undisputed and proven to be directly tied to and exclusively a part of the Croatian literary history sphere alone, also as a matter of fact,  that Serbian language has no history whatsoever to do with those accents. The Stokavian dialect, which emerged in the 12th century, divided into 2 subgroups based upon the pronunciation of the Old Church Slavonic (OCS) and originally found in the Glagolitic common long vowel of "Yat"  One of them was chosen to become the standard literary version of the Latin script Croatian language. (Again, with many influences and borrowing from the other 2 Croatian dialects, this is an important factor as you will see) and the other Cyrillic Serbian is based upon their history of the pronouncing of the "Yat" sound.

    It is only this 3rd Stokavian dialect that Croatian language history has anything in common with Serbs in regards to language, only since the 19th century and only through their "E-kavski" variant of pronouncing "Yat", as opposed to the Croatian "I-jekavski", "I-kavski" variant used through the centuries, the former 2 being the subgroups of Stokavski dialect that belong exclusively to Croatian literary history and most widely used. Serbian "E-kavski" is a much more recent anomaly blip found in the Croatian lands, but also never standard Croatian. The "I-jekavski" variant of Croatian Stokavian, which the Croatian standard language is founded upon, compliments of Ljudevit Gaj, the Croatian National Revival et al and the rich Croatian literary tradition in and around Dubrovnik, is the Stokavian variant that was overwhelmingly a part of Croatian literary heritage. So this slight anomaly connection between Croatian and Serbian language history is through only the Serb "E-kavski" standard of Stokavian and only since the 19th century. Now, would that suffice to make people all across Croatia and the Croatian standardized language included as part of a diasystem in the 20th century? Of course not. Using this pronunciation of "Yat" blip as a common denominator for a diasystem would be like making a Polish-Slovak or Russo-Polish diasystem based on the pronunciation of a common denominator OCS phoneme/word. (As already shown throughout this post, V.K. used sources outside of Serbia as the basis for his dramatic new revolutionized and vastly changed cyrillic alphabet and new Serb language, it is also why he chose "E-kavian" subgroup of Stokavian as his standard. He abhorred the Croatian literature coming out of Dubrovnik especially because it contained too many Croatian influences, words and terms borrowed from the other Croatian dialects, from Croatian dictionaries and grammars. Words unknown or used by V.K or in Serbia). However, it is because of this that he at least made the correct choice in choosing which pronunciation version of "Yat" in Stokavian dialect to be the basis of his new standard Serbian language.  The "E-kavian" subgroup has an unambiguous tradition with Serbs there, namely the dialects used by Serbs in:  Prizren-Timočani, Smederevo-Vršačko, Kosovo and Šumadija in Serbia.

    (Croatian language on the other hand was in constant contact with the Western civilizational circle, forming new words and terms based on this long history and tradition, the Serbian language however was alway leaning on it's Eastern Orthodox civilized circles. In Croatian, the language's development can be constantly monitored from the beginning of literacy and up to now. The literary journey is documented and unquestionable. The Serb language on the contrary, (as has been shown throughout this post) is a nineteenth century creation and a direct sharp break with Serb centuries-old heritage. V.K. distanced and broke away his new language from fellow Orthodoxy Slavic nations, from their fellow Cyrillic nations and oriented instead  toward the Western Slavic nations, their literary heritage and the alphabets and languages they had been using.(Which is very odd, considering again that he comes from a strictly Orthodox and Cyrillic reading and writing heritage, sphere and people. (Не так ли?)  Because of this fact, the Serbian language, literary heritage, path of consistency and legacy truly only goes back to just the 19th century. (Again, all thanks to V.K.)  The Croatian language history in the meantime had always continually drawn from it's own centuries long literary heritage and pool of literature, dictionaries and grammars. It's just an ipso facto. Serbian language only draws from its literary tradition that started only in the 19th century, the Croatian written literary legacy rests on it's own centuries long accomplishments and heritage, and importantly did not ever at any time draw from any Serbian literary legacy. (Much like even V.K. didn't either in retrospect. It is interesting that in the 19th century even after the dramatic revolutions of V.K to his new Serbian language, and importantly even now, the languages still do not meet on on any of the important levels that constitute a singular diasystem. (So you might as well throw in Slovenian and up to Bulgarian, Russian and Polish into this vague meaning umbrella term diasystem as well). This goes far beyond the subject of scripts and orthography. (ie: phonological, accentual, lexical, morphology, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic and words/meanings etc)

    If one was to simplify this further and plainer to see, even after all the information you've read in this post in regards to the Croatian alphabet and language history, vis-a-vis V.K. inspired Serb literary history, one could basically in summary say that the Croatian language encompasses all 3 Croatian dialects, and the Serbian language is only a superfluous recent anomaly in the centuries of Croatian literary history continuum. Croatian language is a many centuries long "documented" multi-dimensional language, a fluid documented natural continuity based in large part because of the civilizational spheres it was always a part of.  Serbian standard on the other hand is only an aberration that is of no concern to the Croatian language, it is the "E'-kavian" sub-group of Stokavian which is the Serbian standard, and infused with many Turkish words (as pointed out earlier)..that have no history in the Croatian sphere. (Recall again, the Croatian standard is "I-jekavian" and I'm not even touching here upon words, meanings, grammars, orthographic rules and Latin script) It is illuminating and comical that even after the revolutionary actions of V.K. in the 19th century, and  later communist Yugoslav authorities and apparatchiks and their schemes in attempting to fuse the 2 languages into one failed so miserably time and time again. Take a look at the diagram below. If you are even just remotely familiar with Croatian accents, then you immediately know and can see that Serbian is only unambiguously centered around "E-kavian, which is the Serbian standard. The past communist lingo-mirage exposes the fact that Serbs only very recently just started using "I-jekavski" in some Croatian areas because of policies within communist Yugoslavia, yet still it all stops there at the red circle you see. The Serbian language is unequivocally a one-dimensional language historically tied to their eastern civilizational "E-kavski" speech and Cyrillic script. The Croatian multi-dimensional language and dialects on the other hand are unambiguously historically connected to everything outside of the red Serb sphere. It is only those 3 specific dialects that through the centuries contributed to today's standard Croatian language. From whence this so-called diasystem?

    In any theorized diasystem, it is actually only the Croatian language dialect continuum which takes precedence.  It is the only one that encompasses all of the important historical continuity dialects, which also has a literary history with only the Croatian language. Also, the Latin script gained ground in Croatian regions with the most vigorous economic and cultural activity (Dalmatian littoral, northern Croatia) and by the 1500s it was already evident that it was to become the one and only medium of Croatian and western literature, (sacral and secular)

    From the basic and simple illustration above, one immediately comes to the conclusion that in any conjured up and enforced diasystem, (Also termed "language planning" by the yugoslav communist authorities)..the Serbian language is not part of any kind of "serbo-croatian" or "croato-serbian" diasystem at all either, it would instead just actually and factually be just a subset of the Croatian language. How so? This is because Serbo (as a set of dialects) vis-a-vis the Croatian language, (as a set of dialects) touch only at that part which is shown in the overlapping figures within the Stokavski dialects, the Serb language has no historic connection with anything outside of the red circle which belong to the Croatian historical spheres.  Also in relation to the overall supposed "diasystem" it still amounts to no common ground in the final standardized languages between the 2 languages even to this day,  linguistics: mathematical and corpus linguistics, textology, psycholinguistics, language acquisition and historical lexicography, or their heritage of scripts either importantly  So in the past ridiculous communist Yugoslavia proposed/enforced "language planning" diasystem all 3 fall within just the Croatian sphere, any other term is proven to be null and void. (Only using the descriptive term of South Slavic Continuum  is there any substance to be able to allude to some kind of greater dialect continuum). Croatian literary elites came to this conclusion long ago and let the fact be known that it was a fake communist Yugoslavia psuedo-term and only recently enforced linguistic policy. The Czechs and Slovaks also broke away from such ill fated and erroneous endeavors.  (What kind of a fail scheme should be tried next had Yugoslavia not dissolved into oblivion?  (rubbing hands)...Alternating language words throughout the week on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays? and dialects and scripts on weekends with some Slovenian and Macedonian thrown in? LOL.  Did you know that the former Yugoslav communist dictator Tito basically spoke a kind of hodge-podge Pidgin? It's true, a lot of people from every language in the different republics couldn't understand him many times, including even close henchmen and backscratching cronies, and he was the guy behind this genius idea in the first place)

    So you see, there is no diasystem between the Croatian-Slovenian language that includes the one-dimensional Turkish influenced Serbo language and Torlakian diaclect (and especially cyrillic script), just as there is no Croatian language in a system between Serbian and Macedonian or Bulgarian languages, except for fundamental connections related to all Slavic languages. (Example : Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, and even Bulgarians also say "što" for the word "what". For the boys and girls out there who didn't know that, then might be of interest to you also) The actual dialect continuum from Serbo to Bulgarian is known as Torlakian, which again is not nor ever was a part of the Croatian historical language sphere, this is where only the previously mentioned term "South Slavic Continuum" could properly be applied. (Interestingly, this Torlakian may actually even be the real Serbo language, even coming from an area that even Serbs themselves call "Old Serbia". The Serbo alphabet reformer Vuk Karadžić referred to Old Serbia as the original territory of the Serbian people when they came to that part of Europe and that it was part of medieval Serbia before they were conquered by the the Ottoman Turks in the 14th century) Serbo then in reality actually only very recently touches at just one small part of the Croatian language continuum and only at the overlapping point shown, and it does not play a part in or affect the Croatian standard. In reality it can not be interpreted otherwise. (When all this information, plus the added facts of the previously discussed and explained purported V.K1841 alphabets page image, one then comes to the conclusion that in 1841 V.K. had already invented the Serb-Serbo anyway. Complete with all their Turkish vocabulary, no Serbo-Torlakian "H" sounds, inclusion of the contradictory previously used Croatian digraphs, other Serbian ligature and grapheme constructions. The Serbo-Serbo-Torlakian language and alphabet was completed in 1841 by V.K. it seems, Cyrillic and 2 inserted mixed Latin versions, they just don't publish or use them nor ever have)

    A map focusing on central and northern Europe circa. the year 1000. 

    Returning momentarily to the above map of central/northern Europe from circa. the year 1000. Actually, when one looks at the above map and considers that the remnants of the original Sorabi, (pictured in the far left) are still located within the eastern border of Germany even today, still speaking their language, it would then be correct to say that the Serbs of southern Europe really speak just one of the dialects of the Croatian language continuum. When one recalls that Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in his work "De Administrando Imperio records that the Croats arrived in DalmatiaPannonia and across Illyricum well before the Serbs, from the more centrally located... "Great Croatia, also called White"... (pictured above between Silesia, Moravia, Bohemia and Red Russia, yet also in other sources located in the more western and further eastern areas)...Serbs are recorded as spending  a substantial amount of time travelling around and only after quite some time did they come to where they are now. (Most probably it is the language of the so-called "Old Serbia", in Southern Srbia, where the Serbs are recorded as finally eventually settling in after arriving from Servia, Greece, that can correctly be called Srbian. This language, which has absolutely no history or dialect continuum with Croatian lands at all, Croatians or Croatian literary history, is called Torlakian. It also correlates to and descends from the centuries of rule by the Bulgarian Empire, who were the masters and overlords of the Serbs. Recall that Belgrade was first mentioned when it was ruled by the Bulgarians and known as Alba Bulgarica)  It's then  plain to see and quite obvious that the language the current confined and remaining Sorabi's speak in Germany is NOT Croatian, obviously, but rather the real Serbian/Sorbian. The Croat dialects after migrating south over time were influenced by the Croats who helped form the early "veches" in Kievan Rus', which also contributed to Croatian surname customs. (As you already know, the Serbs during all this time of the forming of the early eastern "veches" are not mentioned and are absent from the records of Nestor's Chronicle. As you know, the reason for this is because they were only to be found confined within an area of eastern modern day Germany during those centuries, and later some came to be found within the Bulgarian lands and empire. See links below for more). This feature and continuum connection is shown again when even today in the Croatian and Russian languages, we still say the word "što" vis-a-vis Russian "что" (sch-toh) for the word "what". This continuum was also connected by the use of the Old Church Slavonic, which in the Croatian lands continued in use with the Croatian variant Glagolitic alphabet, the very first Slavic/Croatian alphabet and script, Nestor's Primary Chronicle also wrote the Croatian name starting with an "X" which is the equivalent of the Croatian "H" sound, yet it also shows how eventually the "H" sound came to be pronounced as a "K" sound after Latinization. Listen Here. (The "H" sound is not a feature of Serbian language). It cannot be otherwise, or else we would have to say that Croats who migrated to Bohemia, Poland or Kiev in the 17th century from the modern day Croatian lands and then spoke Czech, Polish and Ukrainian are really speaking Croatian. That would be preposterous and absurd. This is better explained at, and

    There simply is no diasystem because all the dialects simply fall within the Croatian dialectal sphere continuum, and all the dialects have a literary history only with the Croats. (See Polish dialects, Slovak dialects, Czech dialects, Russian dialects etc). If you recall, I previously explained why Ljudevit Gaj and members of the Illryian Movement/Croatian National Revival chose Croatian written works and writers from the Dubrovnik area from centuries previously, as the basis and expression of the standardized Croatian language. It was in Dubrovnik that Renaissance masterpieces and classic written works in the Croatian language were able to flourish without interference from Italian, Hungarian and German. (Similar to the regional dialects of Italy, the way Tuscan, which beforehand was spoken mostly by just the upper class of Florenentine society, was chosen for the standard Italian language for all of Italy, This mode of standardizing a language was also the case with many Slavic languages in Europe and their dialects as well)  However, the Croatian elite also chose that Croatian dialect because it was already influcenced by and infused with words from the other Croatian dialects and it was also the most comprehensible to the Slovenes as well as the Bulgarians, so it was the natural choice and ideally suited for the Croatian inspired and burgeoning Pan-Slavic movement as well. When the bishop of Modrus, had the Roman Missal printed in the vernacular in 1532, the title on the frontispiece was Misal Hrvacki (the Croatian Missal), and when Marko Marulić (1450-1524) of Split published the first known vernacular poem in Dalmatia in 1521, "Judith", he reminded on the title that it had been composed "u versih hrvacki slozena," ie: "in Croatian verses." The Dubrovnik poet Dominko Zlatarić (1555-1610) explained on the frontispiece of his 1597 translation of Sophocles' tragedy Elektra and Tasso's Aminta that it had been "iz vece tudieh jezika u Hrvacki izlozene," ie: "translated from the great foreign languages into Croatian". Even just these few examples shows that these important writers still regarded them all simply as dialects of Croatian. (No matter what any centuries later schemers, "language planners" or alternate psuedo-history writers in Serbia were striving towards, even Croatian literary history also shows us otherwise)

    For those of you who understand very simple math, here's another very self-evident and plain to see equation which shows again the Croatian language and dialect continuum. This simple formula is just another logical deduction and revalatory truth in this equation.....

    • Taking into account local variations in Bosnian and Montenegrin, who are also included within this so-called south Slavic diasystem, (yet are not recognized and are ignored and omitted in official terminology) also continue to use guidelines and rules specific to Croatian literary history and orthography. (Montenegrin now even has a slightly adjusted alphabet)....
    • Taking into account the fact that Croatian alphabet and literary history has never gravitated towards any other alphabetical, orthographic, phonological, accentual, lexical, morphological, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic and word/meaning system that was not it's own history and part of it's own literary history, and followed it's own continuous course. (as has been thoroughly shown and explained)....
    • Taking into account the fact that on the contrary, it has been shown that it is instead the Croatian literary history and centuries long alphabet and orthography continuum which has been the precursor to and central catalyst/formula used for the emerging 19th century new Serb alphabet, that the Croatian language and it's alphabet/orthography was not changed, edited, transformed or reformulated  towards any other peoples language or literary history, but rather used it's own literary continuum  ....
    • Taking into account that the greatly reduced, (almost halved) multiple times edited and reassembled new 19th century Serb alphabet in effect and factually was reformulated based on the already existing continuum of the Croatian alphabet/orthography and so truthfully was oriented to become just only a Cyrillic version of the Croatian alphabet, which again it must be stressed, was the result of the centuries long Croatian alphabet/orthography and literary continuum. (A Cyrillic version that went on to not include digraphs of course importantly, among other characteristics)....
    •  Taking into account the strategic location of the Croatian lands, (and the resulting development of dialects with influence from the neighboring early Romance and Germanic languages) as well as the fact that the first dictionaries, orthographies, grammars, first plays, first novels, first scientific and medical term published materials and encyclopedias factually all originate from the Croatian literary history (Including the ones with Latin, German and Hungarian translations included)...and that all these contributed to today's standard Croatian alphabet and language.
    • Taking into account that Turkish vocabulary words belong overwhelmingly to Serbian literary heritage due to their 500 years of Turkish subjugation,  and not to Croatian  literary heritage, taking into account of the introduction into the Serbian language a whole new phonetic feature that previously was not recognized and regarded by Serb linguists as non-existent, namely the important phoneme/ligature of H.  Recall my previous pronunciation of "Prague/Praha" example. (as well as the accompanying Voiceless velar fricative as already explained and shown here)....
    • Taking into account Croatian literary history and it's extremely long relationship with Latin. (as well as the continued preservation of the very first Slavic/Croatian alphabet and script of Glagolitic as well as of Old Church Slavonic - OCS)....
    • Taking into account that the "Croatian language is the only one of the languages that includes all 3 dialects" in it's history and importantly written literary history, that the Croatian standard language includes elements from all 3 in the Croatian standard which likewise completes any proposed continuum adjective or invented umbrella term....
    • Also importantly taking into account that the assigned name of this so-called diasystem and it's nomenclature are the byproduct of a failed forced communist state attempt to either negate or forcefully edit and limit Croatian literary history, that the failed forced attempt was constructed by unqualified political functionaries with only political intent in mind to invent a state language within the failed communist state, that the political intent of the failed state functionaries was also to usurp the Croatian literary history and it's name and then replace it by imposing said communist ideological terminology and nomenclature, and that today Croatian is the official language of the Croatian state along with the Croatian alphabet. Croatians call our language "Croatian". (this failed attempt at a forced communist state language, it's accompanying terminology and nomenclature was already declared null and void in 1967 by the Declaration_on_the_Status_and_Name_of_the_Croatian_Literary_Language and so can be considered a relic communist state assigned term from a relic communist state by unqualified state party funcionaries. An adjective long abandoned by the Czechs and Slovaks as well) 
    • Taking into account that Croatian is a Slavic language and because the Croatian lands, (dating from the early middle ages and medieval Croatian Kingdom)...through the subsequent centuries was governed at times by the Venetians, Hungarians and Austrians, consequently the Croatian literature and language was at times described by the more romantic classically learned writers also in "classical Renaissance terms", as well as being called  "Croatian" (ie: Dalmatian, Illyrian, or Slavonic, Slovinksi, Slavic, even Bosnian when writing for Croatian people in that province during the Renaissance. [Importantly and interestingly never acknowledged or called as Serbian), yet writers and authors numerous times make it clear that the classical terms are all synonymous with "Croatian/Hrvatski" and synonyms of  "Croatian/Hrvatski", similarly as per Czech-Slavic-Slavonic-Bohemian etc. This was the case along Croatian coastal and southern areas, especially Dubrovnik where Serbian was not only unfamiliar, but was also considered foreign. (Example, the Croatian language was called by the classical name Dalmatian when spoken in Dubrovnik (Ragusa) in the 17th century. Although the Latin language was in official use, inhabitants of the republic were mostly native speakers of the generally termed synonym..Slavonic language.(This was confirmed by Count Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy in 1698, when he noted...“In Dalmatia, the Ragusans call themselves Croats”)
    • Taking into account the fact that written material since the beginning of Croatian literary history, it is only Croatian that has numerous instances of material being published and written in all 3 dialects and also importantly being called and/or described as being the Croatian language, at the time that the material was written. (a highly prized and important proven distinction accorded to Croatian literary history that Serb history again played no role in. see Talking about the Croatian language)...
    • Taking into account the numerous archaic Croatian vocabulary words which were used since even before Croats or Slavs knew how to write, is the inclusion of archaic Croatian words that were also used in all our dialects, and importantly here, used and part of official Croatian language even today. As just one example, and contrary to Serbian Cyrillic months, Croatian names for the months of the year reach far back to our early history, from even Slavic pagan times. This is a characteristic still found in quite a number of other Slavic languages and nations also. See

    ....After the above points are examined and taken into consideration, then it is very obvious and plain to see that there is no hypenated diasystem at all, because it is only Croatian which contains all the dialects and which would also be the common denominator in every instance anyway. Croatian in fact completes all 3 continuum scenarios and importantly only relied on it's own already existing literary, grammar and orthography history as it's source and inspiration. It's a very simple math and quite obvious that Croatian IS the continuum. (As already shown, only Torlakian is not a part of Croatian in this equation which belongs to the Serb sphere, or quite possibly the Bulgarian or Macedonian sphere.  Serbo-Torlakian does not play a part in Croatian literary history whatsoever and may by considered the true Serbian language heritage because it does not include "the H sound", which V.K. (and his fellow Serb linguists in the 19th century)...was adamant about that it did NOT exist in the Serbian language nor was acknowledged by Serbs) It is then plainly evident and a fact that cannot be refuted that the Croatian language dialect continuity is not part of any diasystem at all. If we are to give a name to or label a continuum that includes all 3 dialects based solely on the way to say the word "what", a continuum relying on centuries of Croatian literary history, then it should be properly and correctly named as such according to the above mentioned valid and proven points, and not according to any sort of force fed communist era inspired "language planning: agendas and invented political terms from those dictatorial times. So truthfully, the above points clearly show that Croatians speak Croatian, and if anything, according to those same valid points presented,  it is only the Serbs who speak anything that would or could be categorized as using a communist relic (Serbo)-Croatian nomenclature adjective.....

    The Turkish-fused Serb language of the 19th century became Croatianized in the 19th century, (Just like V.K's new Cyrillic alphabet system, and NOT the other way around as already shown, one came around centuries after the other from a completely different literary and civilizational route/experience)...based overwhelmingly on the over 9 centuries long history of Croatian dictionary, grammar and Croatian literary corpus. Even after V.K. abandoned the Serb language and it's dialects and alphabet and then transformed it unrecognizably to align it to the already present and used Croatian literary continuity, there still remains over10 thousand words of Srb heritage that play no part in Croatian literary history, in the Croatian standard or in any of our historical dialects. The differences from the true Croatian standard vis-a-vis the true Srb standard is much like the divergences in Spanish/Catalan, German/Dutch, Danish/Norwegian, Czech/Slovak, and Russian/Belarus. For this reason the relic communist yugoslav "language planning" attempts failed repeatedly, just like the state and political philosophy. Croatian language history and it's literary corpus is the natural catalyst of today's Croatian standard, and in the 19th century it was to eventually become the basis of V.K,s new greatly edited alphabet and even language (albeit in much muddier and patchy/sporadic versions including the numerous Turkish-isms as already shown, and not the other way around). However, Croatian language history and it's literary corpus can be properly and correctly be included as part of a South Slavic Continuity.

    Image source:

    You see, the interrogative pronoun  'what', the word conveying the force of a question in various Slavic languages is derived from Proto-Slavic 'čĭto' (pronounced "chto"). So in modern day official standard Slavic based languages we today have:

    Croatian: što,
    Czech: co
    Kashubian: co
    Polish: co
    Slovak: čo
    Bulgarian: що (što)
    Macedonian: што (što)
    Russian: что (što), non-standard forms being чо (čo), шо (šo)
    Belarusian: што (što)
    Ukrainian: що (ščo)

    And in the early Old Church Slavonic which evolved from Proto-Slavic, and from which all of the above interrogative pronouns derived from in the 9th century we have:

    and then the later common Cyrillic which derived from the Glagolitic: чьто (čĭto)

    So knowing that the Croatian standard language today is a result of middle ages early Proto-Slavic and Church Slavonic written in Croatian recension Glagolitic and includes elements, features and words used in the Croatian dialects through the following centuries, likewise each of the standards of the above other Slavic languages is also a result of the same processes including their dialects also.

    The early Proto-Slavic word for the interrogative pronoun "what" (čĭto)  in each language went through a continuum with slight variations through the centuries until the official standard versions that we have today. The Croatian language just like all of the above Slavic languages, importantly also kept the early inherent "H" sound/phonology in all our dialects and so in our official literary standard up to today also. (Some languages such as Serbian did not, as already shown). This was important because it enabled us to include the "H" sound in names, topography, nomenclature, places, things and many other words even up to today. This is the interesting history of onymics, onomastics, etymology and phonology through the centuries of today's Croatian language. It is only the Croatian language which has the documented heritage from our dialects, all 3 of them throughout history and which contributed to today's standard Croatian language.

    (* An exception to the above is the Slovenian language which uses "kaj" as their official standard, it is also used as an interrogative pronoun in one of the later appearing Croatian dialects. Interestingly, as modern-day Hungary used to be populated by Slavic-speaking peoples prior to the arrival of Hungarians in the 9th century, there have been valid hypotheses that since it is most prominent in the south Slavic languages, namely just Slovenian and as a dialect of Croatian, that this interrogative pronoun origins was from a common Pannonian innovation extending to similar dialectal features and bearing a closer resemblance to a number of words in modern Slovakian, Polish, Czech, Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian, probably a local dialect that evolved from the time of the migration of the Croat tribes in the 7th century. The interesting facts behind Croatian history, gotta love it)

    An elementary Croatian excrcise book seen above. Just like in mathematics there is only one official solution to any language lesson exercise. Every elementary school system and European language system especially will tell you that. There aren't 2 answers in either case, (like using Roman numerals to answer your college math test or answering your Shakespeare test using Runes. It simply has to be answered using a uniform, exact and precise system every time, preferably a system that has a tradition and includes an H sound) unless all the other countries have it all wrong. It should be noted again that the Croatian alphabet and Ljudevit Gaj's orthography work, as well as Slovene, Polish and Slovak orthographies, can be described as being loosely based on Czech orthography, in that they have a Latin language and Latin script history, use similar diacritics and also have a similar relationship between the letters and the sounds they represent, ie; diacritics to standard Latin letters for expressing sounds which are foreign to the Latin language, but also using some digraphs. And just as in the other national alphabets mentioned, the Croatian alphabet went through periods during its development through the centuries just as the Czech orthographic system did. The role of Ljudevit Gaj and his literary/linguist supporters can very much be likened to the role of later Czech linguists such as Josef Dobrovský, who similarly during the period of the Czech National Revival (late 18th century to the first half of the 19th century), just as Ljudevit Gaj's work he likewise published his grammar of Czech, Lehrgebäude der Böhmischen Sprache (1809; “Learning System of the Bohemian Language”), codified the Czech language alphabet and brought order to the minor inconsistencies that had been neglected in the previous 150 years, and his reforms in the orthography principles including sound structure principles have also remained in effect right up to the present day. 

    Let me give you another clear and lucid example, just in case after all you've read you still don't understand. (For this one you can call over your 10 year old Croatian niece or nephew to join in). The above page shows 2 pages, (just like a digraph come to think of it) from a Latin-Croatian dictionary and thesaurus printed in 1649, this is well before the time of V.K. or Ljudevit Gaj. It was written by Jakov Mikalja (Latin: Jacobus Micalia) and contained also a Slavic orthography. He was dispatched from Dubrovnik by the Jesuits to teach the Catholic Croats in Bosnia. It was the first Croatian dictionary with Croatian (under classical name of "Illyric" or "Slovinian/Slavic" as pointed out earlier) as the starting language. In this very same dictionary, he also treats the terms Croatian, Slovinian and Illyric as synonyms to make it clear.

    It even contains elements from all 3 of the Croatian dialects and went on to later influence Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj and so naturally it became an integral part of the development and standardization of Croatian modern language. Words were included that are part of modern day Croatian, but that were foreign to Serbs who used more Turkish words. (The prominent Croatian scholar of Slavic studies, Vatroslav Jagić, reminded and made it clear to fellow academicians that the Croatian language in all it's dialects, and progressive evolving alphabet existed long before V.K. was born, that besides being called Croatian/Hrvatski it was also called Illyrian, Bosnian, Dalmatian, Slavonian, Slavic, classical or local literary synonyms. Among numerous other scholars, Matija Murko, a Slovenian philologist, literary historian, ethnographer, Slavist and editor, also made it abundantly clear when he said that he had "presented sufficient evidence, especially between the 16th and 18th century, that the names Croatian/Hrvatski, Illyrian, Slovinski..were used as synonyms for the Croatian language"). That being said, now go ask you niece or nephew to read the above text  If they understand Croatian it shouldn't be too difficult. (Remind them that the 'z' is just an old fashioned sans serif typeface used in printing back then) I can read it and understand it no problem too. Heck, any Croatian can read it and understand it. It's about as different from modern Croatian as the King James bible English is to modern day English.

    On that note, now take one final look below at the alphabet being used by Serbs in Serbia just before V.K. came along. Take note of their appearance and how many letters there are. Are there more letters/ligatures than in Croatian? How many more? Do they look different? How different? Does the Serb alphabet look similar to what Croatians were reading/ writing in 2 centuries before, at that time or even now 2 centuries later? How similar? Were Croatian language writers and publications ever using the below alphabet and it's orthography and ligatures? If the answer is no, then why not? Croatian writers and writers of Croatian didn't know how to read and write before then perhaps? (Perhaps V.K. was right and Croatians didn't exist and weren't inveneted yet, and we were probably just reading and writing in Japanese and Norwegian for centuries) It's not rocket science boys and girls. (Vatroslav Jagić was right again when he said that literary Croatian (in all it's dialects, including stokavian, and classical/synonym names) existed already centuries before V.K. abandoned the serb literary corpus (and alphabet) and then used those centuries of Croatian literature to influence the form of his new language/alphabet..."Točno je samo to, da je književna štokavština, koja je kod Hrvata živjela prije Vuka pod različitim imenima (hrvatskim, ilirskim, bosanskim, dalmatinskim, slavonskim), utjecajem Vuka i njegovih publikacija dobila dosljedniji, narodniji oblik.")  You can see that the Croatian Latin alphabet continuum never diverted or changed it's evolutionary course, it so obvious that a blind person can see it and tell the difference. This is the continuity and unadulterated natural fluid progression of the Croatian alphabet and language that I've time and time again shown throughout this examination. Regarding Croatian literary corpus and history vis-a-vis the Serb literary history, one can then see it's not a case of apples and oranges, it's more like apples and golf balls, and the Croatian apple has stayed an apple all along, we never were in need of golf balls, never tried to turn apples into golf balls and today in Croatian we still eat apples and don't eat golf balls. Where have all the golf balls gone? If the reader thinks that the Croatian alphabet continuum seen above and all throughout this post didn't come from our own literary history according to a natural progression, but instead is the same, related to or derived from the early 19th century Serb alphabet seen below, then I'd like to sell you the moon for a very fair price. I own the deed and will throw in an extra large crater for you with a nice view of Jupiter. (More info at and

    Early 19th century one and only official Serb alphabet.

    I decided to update and throw these couple of images here for the boys and girls out there, just to make it more interesting in understanding the meaning of 'continuity' and which also sums up all the facts presented so far. On that note, think of the below continuity of Montréal Canadiens jerseys as the Croatian language and alphabet continuity. The last jersey to the far right you can think of as the Croatian alphabet today. Those jerseys from 1915 to 1925 you can consider the Croatian alphabet around the 16th century. The 1952 jersey would be what was being used around the 1700's. Those 1990's and early 2000's jerseys are the ones Ljudevit Gaj started from to get to where we are today..........

    It's good to know that the Croatian alphabet, language, grammar, orthography and dictionary continuum has progressed steadily forward and onward and never once changed it's course or diverged towards another system/alphabet. It is also good to know that V.K. abandoned the above seen official and only Serb alphabet and orthography in the early 19th century and from his travels started looking elsewhere, going on to instead incorporate Croatian alphabet traditions, orthographic and even some grammar principles into his newly concocted and rudimentary, (it was revised a number of times as shown), yet also a contradictory and error filled new Cyrillic adaptation of Croatian alphabet history, orthographic and grammar continuum. (As already shown earlier, the 'H' in the middle of the logo was especially an important feature of the Croatian language and so remained along with previously used graphemes/ligatures and digraphs into the finalized Croatian alphabet/jersey also. Even the logo itself can in a way be considered as being representative of digraphs that are still found in the Croatian alphabet to this day)

    This below Cleveland Barons jersey represents the Serb alphabet at the time of V.K. This Serbian jersey/alphabet is the result of the Serbian alphabet/script continuum and what it looked like at the beginning of the 19th century. An alphabet, script and numerous characters (colours, design patterns, logo) that was not even close to the Croatian jerseys. This Serb jersey/alphabet was basically ripped in half and thrown into the closet by V.K and never seen or worn again. It ended up just being put away in some cold, dusty, dark room of some museum basement somewhere and never talked about, and it is still found there to this day. (The above Croatian alphabet/jersey never once in history used the logo, colors, stitching, patterns (orthography, digraph rules, graphemes, ligatures and especially cyrillic script characters) or in any degree looked or fit like the Serb alphabet/jersey that was abandoned by V.K.)

    All this presented information presented thus far can even be correlated visually by the very Serbian coat of arms, of their flag and also the Serbian church coat of arms and their flag seen even today. How is that you may ask? Well quite simply, it's the same case of appropriating something from another source. You will notice that today there are nations besides Serbia that have adapted Byzantine elements into their coat of arms and flags, mainly concerning a 2 headed eagle into their coats of arms and flag. But variations of a 2 headed eagle have been on many coats of arms in Europen dynastic history and has a very long history before even Serbs adopted it. (Even the Croatian city of Rijeka has had a variation of a 2 headed eagle on it's coat of arms for a long time, from the times Croatia was a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Albania has a 2 headed eagle also. Not a big deal, 2 headed eagles symbology was used by the Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, Austrian Empire, Hungarian noble arms even used by the Roman Empire at times, whatever. But onto other symbology and something even more blatant which correlates to my points. If you look at the below images of a Byzantine Empire dynastic flag from medieval times and the current Serbian coats of arms, and especially the shield in the middle, you will see that it is exactly like an iron on transfer. This middle Serbian central coat of arms is not Serbian designed which I read at a few of their sites, it's not something new and original but was copied directly from a Greek royal dynasty symbology and coat of arms. The Palaiologos dynasty to be exact. The later 4 Serb Cyrillic C's (Which replaced the 4' B's that were originally there and which meant "Βασιλεὺς Βασιλέων Βασιλεύων Βασιλεῦσι" translated as "king of kings, ruling over rulers) the shield these days however they changed to the meaning "Unity Saves The Serb" (But also later "Chetniks Couldn't Conquer Croatia" in some circles) But the main point is that all the symbology including especially their important central shield was in Serb Cyrillic (Not Latin letters, not in Chinese or Japanese either, and not Cyrillic and any other script, that's pretty plain to see. It's strictly just the Cyrillic and it's right there on their central coat of arms for all to see even today) and it's even an exact duplicate rip-off from the Greek version original. See for yourself, the top version below is from the Greek original standard bearing the Coat of Arms of the Byzantine House of Lascaris Comnenus of Constantinople ruling dynasty and below that the current Serb version. It's nothing new or original, it's just only a newer Serb Cyrillic version. (No Latin version included of course. It's also just Cyrillic naturally because the Cyrillic also importantly symbolizes the civilizational origins of the Serbs also. For this reason only Cyrillic is the one and only standard script used in the central ripped off Greek dynastic shield and symbology. It is an obvious portrayal of their strictly Byzantine origins and not of the Holy Roman Empire and western European civilizational heritage which Croats belonged to) Related:

    The Serbian double-headed eagle symbol and central coat of arms was purported by some revisionist Serb writers as originating with and from Serbs exclusively. Unfortunately that would be not correcthighly improbableuntrue, and just plain wrong. The middle shield is basically a rip-off from Greek Byzantine dynasty coats of arms and is using only the Non-Latin writing world script from those times, only Cyrillic. It's pretty plain to see that the official Serbian symbology wants to let the viewer know right from the start that we are talking Byzantine culture and origins and the related Cyrillic script exclusively. Everyone knows that Latin script is exclusively the cultural heritage of the western and central European sphere, that's just a fact and history .

     So when you see someone walkng down the street wearing a Byzantine Palaiologos dynasty t-shirt like the girl above, don't think to yourself "Oh, that's a Serbian symbol, He/She is Serbian." Would wearing a Japan soccer jersey make you Chinese?  Or Greek or German? Would the Japanese script in the shield then be Egyptian, Latin or Greek? You have also seen where this Serb Cyrillic script and alphabet linear progression ultimately lead to in the early 19th century. Where did that 19th century official Serb Cyrillic script and alphabet go to?

    (Feel free to listen to background music while reading this last section)

    You have seen the naturally progressive course of Croatian language history in this post, as well as the information focusing especially on the Croatian alphabet continuity through the centuries up to the time of Ljudevit Gaj and the Croatian National Revival, and especially then even to this day. You have been shown the fluid progression that never once diverted from it's course into or towards another alphabet system. (However, you have been clearly shown that the opposite is the case vis-a-vis Serb alphabet history). On that note, now take one final look at the pre-V.K. Srb alphabet pictured above that was the only Srb alphabet that existed and which was being used to write Serbian with at the time. Remember, the Serbo alphabet at the time of Vuk Karadzic contained...(get out your calculators) least 49 cyrillic letters. Whereas the few minor grapheme adjustments work of Ljudevit Gaj and his colleagues only continued the natural centuries long continuum of Croatian literary history, (Including continuing the work of his predecessors such as Pavao Ritter Vitezović from 1670, etc)...then it is obvious why even V.K. himself admitted that he worked hard to distance his new reformed (or butchered can also be used) Cyrillic alphabet from the Serbo-Slavonic and Russian hybrid used before him. There were actually  four types of literary languages at the time of V.K.: Serbian Church Slavonic, folk, Russian Church Slavonic and Slavo-Serbian and the letters had no vocal basis. Sometimes even more than 49 letters could be used. The dysfunctionality, disunity, arbitrariness and instability of the language as a system were a source of great difficulties and a source of embarrassment. Furthermore, this language had no defined grammar, and it was used in a form that suited whoever used it. The alphabet seen above and it's accompanying phonology was in effect a disaster. Also recall that the Srb alphabet even went on to eventually include the Cyrillic equivalent of the letter H, a letter and it's phonological acoustic properties that V.K. and Srb linguists deemed as non-existent in the Serb language and did not use when writing, yet it is a letter/sound that the Croatian alphabet system has always used. (This letter/sound of H that is also used by many other languages/alphabets which has been shown, such as Hallowe'en and of course Hrvatska)

    Below we see the "Illustration Creation of the World" and the title page of the book Вѣчный калєндарь (Eternal Calendar) by Захаријa Орфелин (Zahariye Orfelin) from 1783. Zahirije Orfelin was a Serb writer, educator, herbalist, historian and poet, he founded and edited the first Serbian review, Slaveno-Serbski Magazin (1768), the poem Plač Serbii [The Lament of Serbia] and numerous other works. Orfelin was just one in a long list of Serb authors and writers promoting and using the same Slavoserb language and alphabet as the official means of communication and for publishing material for Serbs. Orfelin became the official secretary to the Serb Orthodox Metropolitan of Serbia. His Slaveno-Serbski Magazin popularized even more and paved the way to official Slavoserbian language and alphabet. It became the official language and alphabet in Serbian schools, in education, as well as the official language and alphabet of the Serbian Orthodox Church, who administered the school systems and promoted it's official usage. The one and only official Serb language and...alphabet. He traveled to other parts of Europe with support from the Serb church to publish books using this alphabet and standard Serbian, as well as translate other books into this Slavoserbian. It was used to publish Serbian books in Budapest as late as 1808. "Little Slavoserbian song book of the Serb people" was published in Vienna in 1814 using this Cyrillic alphabet/language. The alphabet and language, (which again contained at least 49 Cyrillic ligatures and sounds), was officially sanctioned, approved and blessed by the Serb Orthodox Church as the official language and alphabet of the Serb people. Used in schools and education (which again were run by the Serb Orthodox Church) and for publishing. It was wide spread among Serbs in the Ottoman Empire, especially in Vojvodina. Like the other previous Slavic-Russian-Serb hybridization attempts, this Slavoserbian also fell out of use in Serbia, but only in the 1880's. This was mainly due to the radical changes and discarding of this Serb alphabet/ literary history by V.K. between the years 1818 to 1851 and the gradual appearance of his new Serb Cyrillic. V.K.'s new Serb Cyrillic was a radical break with Serbian literary history, it was then heavily influenced and phonemically designed according to the already existing and used principles from the Croatian Latin alphabet phonology and literary continuity through the centuries.

    Looking at the above, it would a good time to note again that the Croatian alphabet and Ljudevit Gaj's orthography work, as well as Slovene, Polish and Slovak orthographies, can be described as being loosely based on Czech orthography, in that they have a Latin language and Latin script history, use similar diacritics and also have a similar relationship between the letters and the sounds they represent, ie; diacritics to standard Latin letters for expressing sounds which are foreign to the Latin language, but also using some digraphs. And just as in the other national alphabets mentioned, the Croatian alphabet went through periods during its development through the centuries just as the Czech orthographic system did. The role of Ljudevit Gaj and his literary/linguist supporters can very much be likened to the role of later Czech linguists such as Josef Dobrovský, who similarly during the period of the Czech National Revival (late 18th century to the first half of the 19th century), just as Ljudevit Gaj's work he likewise published his grammar of Czech, Lehrgebäude der Böhmischen Sprache (1809; “Learning System of the Bohemian Language”), codified the Czech language alphabet and brought order to the minor inconsistencies that had been neglected in the previous 150 years, and his reforms in the orthography principles including sound structure principles have also remained in effect right up to the present day. 

    It is very plain to see that even today, as in the 19th century and from well before that, that variations of Cyrillic script have been the only script used by Serbs because it is directly connected to their cultural origins and civilizational/literary history, that's a fact. This is precisely why V.K. published his new Serb cyrillic dictionaries only in his new Serb cyrillic alphabet without an "H" sound/letter, because he said the Serb language doesn't have an "H" sound and that Serbs don't pronounce it when speaking. Above is a recent Serbian dinar currency note which features only V.K. That's because the modern day Serb cyrillic script and alphabet is attributed to not only his major so-called "reforms"(ie; major eradications/deconstructions) but as shown also the complete transformation of the Serbian cyrillic alphabet of his time to something completely unrecognizable to the prior version. (Including the disposal of almost 50% of the cyrillic letters/sounds used and then eventually even including the Croatian "H" sound also, which he vehemently argued for many years that it did not exist in the Serbian language). The truth of the matter shown throughout this detailed analysis post plainly shows that when Serbs don't know how to read or write their Serbian cyrillic that was designed over time by V.K. specifically for Serbs, they ipso facto then instead use the Croatian alphabet instead, the one that originates from a different contradictory civilizational origins process/cultural milieu and that has had the literary natural linear continuity and "H" sound all along just like other Slavic languages. V.K readily admits to this in his updated 1852 version new Serbian cyrillic first Serbian dictionary as shown. It is for this reason that you will not find any mentions, statues, plaques, stamps, named streets and of course any visual representations whatsoever pertaining to Ljudevit Gaj or any of the other Croatian literary figures that preceded him or his colleagues, on a Serb currency dinar note such as seen above. Because the Croatian alphabet of today is a product of and a direct result of Croatian literary history. For this reason you naturally also won't see V.K. on Croatian currency or stamps etc. (This is of course because Croatian literary history comes from a completely different civilizational history and origins and did not start only in the 19th century after a major departure, reconstruction and transformation. Ljudevit Gaj and his Croatian predecessors and colleagues simply did not eradicate the "H" sound as well as almost 50% of the Croatian alphabet from his time. Importantly also, all of the 30 sounds that were present and used before and standardized during his time (consonants and vowels) are still used and a part of the official Croatian alphabet today)

    Synopsis?...Diasystem failure and fallacy exposed. Turn on the big flashing and blinking "Fail" lights. Ljudevit Gaj, the Croatian National Revival, Croatian dialect continuum, Croatian language and centuries of linear Croatian literary continuum decimates all imposters on all fronts. (An engine system running on diesel fuel transformed to instead run on gasoline, does not turn it into a diesel-gasoline engine, THE DIESEL ENGINE IS FACTORED OUT OF THIS EQUATION/SCENARIO ENTIRELY). This is also clear where it is shown that the Croatian standard (and it's alphabet) was and is the catalyst and common denominator in every continuity scenario. id est: It was only the progressive and continuous Croatian literary corpus (a gasoline engine as the Croatian example) that was and is the building blocks of the Croatian standard language and alphabet. (with no amount of changes according to a diesel engine/Serb system) The Serb alphabet is Serb only insofar as it uses Cyrillic letters and does not use digraphs or diacritics, because the the Serb cyrillic alphabet was abandoned by V.K. completely and majorly transformed in the 19th century. (It does however include the "H" sound/ligature now, which V.K. argued for years that it did not exist in the Serb language) It's phonological sound system was based on the already existing Croatian continuity. From it's original form, then V.K.'s radical break from Serb continuity and then through the following various omissions, edits and revisions, it is then clearly shown that it was actually over time transformed towards and based on the Croatian Latin literary/alphabet history and it's phonology (sound) system.

    Another quick visual reminder for the boys and girls, a very clear and easy to understand analogy of many of the facts presented here and discussed so far. That being the continuity of the Croatian alphabet before and after the work of Ljudevit Gaj and his colleagues. Every single sound in the previous Croatian alphabet versions was accounted for after his standardizing work and still is used today. At the top left is a visual aid which helps explain and summarize. A) All 30 Croatian sounds, (consonants and vowels) were carried forward, including the "H" sound importantly. B) No sounds in the Croatian alphabet or used in the Croatian literary corpus were deleted and no foreign sounds not already a part of the Croatian language, in all it's dialects, was added to it. We can compare the Croatian alphabet standardizing work to a paint job on a house, (left) and V.K's work on the Serb church blessed and used in publishing Serb cyrillic alphabet (right) to the same as gutting out a house from the foundations, even eradicating items such as numerous water heaters (letters/sounds) that were useless because they served the function of just taking up space making strange odd sounds instead of heating water. In effect the Serb literary history and linear corresponding cyrillic alphabet history was demolished and gutted by V.K. in the 19th century. (As already shown earlier, after his "Croatian Orthography" publication in 1830, it was in his "Danica" publication in 1835 that Ljudevit Gaj introduced his newly made digraph "Lj" where originally he used the Slovak "L'" for the same sound, and "Dj" to replace the equivalent diacritics he used previously in 1830.  He introduced "Dž" and "Nj" instead of "Ǧ" as initially proposed, (with Dž also entering the Slovak alphabet) and the Czech equivalent sound of "Ň" respectively. Other Czech borrowed diacritics (C, S, Z/Č, Š, Ž) for already existing sounds from his "Croatian Orthography" publications from 1830 he also kept, except he changed the equivalent sound Czech letter "Ť" that he initially used to instead "Tj" but then decided to borrow from the Polish alphabet the letter "Ć" to represent the same sound. Of course the "H" sound was never even questioned and never disappeared either at any time. The plain truth of the matter is that when Serbs don't know how to read or write using the Serb new cryrillic script made specifically for them by V.K. and instead use the alphabet that originated from the Croatian literary corpus and linear alphabet continuum and sound/orthography rules as well as vastly different civilizational history, they are in effect spitting on their very own literary history and identity, they are actually choosing to throw their literary sacrality and all the work of V.K. into the manure pile, negating their very culture, identity and existence. This is what the facts clearly show. The house on the left with the new house number I'll just say it's 30 Hamburger street for arguments sake, the new number 30 house sign corresponding to the 30 sounds used before and after. The new number sign and paint job correlating to his few grapheme/letter borrowings from the above mentioned national alphabets for sounds that were already present and being used. The "H" sound was also being used by them so that just remained the same as before just like the other consonants. 

    The Croatian alphabet even before the work of Ljudevit Gaj was about 98% exactly the same as after his final standardizing. He continued the same alphabet methodology but just borrowed ligatures/characters for already existing sounds from the previous literary corpus of Croatian authors (Šime Budinić, Pavao Vitezović)...fine tuned a few with Polish and Czech ligatures/letters for the already existing sounds and topped it off with his digraphs he invented for the already existing sounds as well (which were previously just in diacritic form) No chopping or adding. Compared to the previous Serb Cyrillic alphabet, it's so plainly obvious that it's a no contest. Even more importantly, the Croatian alphabet, along with the Croatian language, officially broke away from communist attempts to change and transform it using foreign words, the Declaration_on_the_Status_and_Name_of_the_Croatian_Literary_Language while still a part of the former communist Yugoslavia, was an official death knell at hybridization attempts and thus the successful continuation of Croatian language and alphabet literary history. Step aside fake alphabets myth-makers. The mirage-makers and schemers are the mirage and myth. Croatian language, literary and alphabet continuum treads ever onward...


    (*If you've read this post up to this point, thank you for taking the time to read. You've soaked up a lot of information in the process, and actually much more than originally planned.  The basic information presented has come to a conclusion. I hope you have learned something about the history of Ljudevit Gaj, Croatian literary, orthography, grammar and dictionary history, the continuum of the Croatian languge, our historic literary dialects and classic written material...etc  Ljudevit Gaj and the other Croatian men of letters, linguists, politicians, nobles and any other writers who joined his cause played an important part in not only the Croatian language, but as you have seen, in bringing pride to the forefront of Croatia's rich literary and historic past and their aim was for it's preservation and fruition. They importantly ensured that it was to have a future during tumultuous times, with numerous political and national ideologies going on in those days, the days of various European empires. The times of Ljudevit Gaj, his work, his colleagues and their later political Pan-Slavic movement was a very topsy-turvy time. Croatia already for centuries had been wedged between major competing European powers.  Hungary, Austria, Venice. Their effects and at times encroachment on the Croatian language reached a point in the 19th century that called for something to be done. European powers hoping to keep Croatian lands divided and preserve the status quo, attempting in various ways to eliminate Croatian political presence, Croatian influence and history.....(This was the time that the Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ukrainians and other Slavic nations also started their national revivals, as they were in similar situations) 

    .......The best way to keep the status quo was by, if not eliminating them, at least by discouraging the fruition and expansion of the various Slavic languages. Attempting to eliminate, or at least drastically limit the usage of the languages in written and spoken form in official capacities, in government and schools, this was also extending to their vernacular use at times, such as publications or newspapers. One of Ljudevit Gaj's first priorities was the publishing of a Croatian newspaper. (Also not to be forgotten, the important behind the scenes efforts of trying to hijack Croatian literary history and it's very existence by fake alphabet makers and myth tellers, were briefly touched upon also)  If you ever get a chance to visit Croatia, especially his hometown or even the city of Zagreb, I would recommend that if you get the opportunity or have the time, to take a moment and pay your respects to the man, his associates and their work, in some way. His and their work is directly responsible to the continuum of the Croatian language (and of course it's alphabet and  script) taking it's rightful place elevated in importance in all literary spheres and as the standard of the Croatian people.

    As a final retrospect, recall that it is not so important that the Pan-Slavic political movement they were a part of did not ultimately succeed, afterall, there were numerous political parties and/or ideological movements that appeared and then disappeared in the 19th century, (Example)...and many unsuccessful great thinkers and politicians as well, too many to mention here actually. The Pan-Slavic political movement from those times was just one facet, it was a sort of utopian dream, but at least importantly based on equality of nations and their histories.  The most important thing to remember and the true legacy from those times is that it had started out as a unifying Croatian movement. Ljudevit Gaj from the very start believed that before any future Pan-Slavic political movement can occur, that it must first unify the Croatian people. The important starting point for this endeavor was for a single standardized alphabet, script and language for Croats who where divided within the empires for some time. This orthographic and reform work he started years before the later publications of his Pan-Slavic "Danica" publications. (One can't include other nations or hope to gain their acceptance into a movement if you don't have a starting point, a working standardized alphabet of your own first. You can't run before you learn to walk, so to speak) The Croatian national anthem was actually printed and published for the very first time in his later weekly printed material, and most importantly...according to the new Croatian standard alphabet and script that was standardized and introduced through him and his colleagues. The script, alphabet and it's graphemes has not changed it's course since that day. Nothing has impeded it's continued use, or changed it according to any other systems, languages or any other literary history or orthographic rules. Those who came after him likewise did not alter or transform it into something else either, but kept true to the course and continuum. The reformed alphabet of Ljudevit Gaj, as shown, was based on his original, digraph-free (or "short form" for simplicity). Their envisioned Pan-Slavic political movement did not succeed, but the Croatian alphabet and language that started it and continued on afterwards, was set in stone. That is what is really important in all this, and the legacy remains to this day. The proper ligatures and phonemic sounds systems remained according to the Croatian orthography all this time. His solutions for the Croatian language alphabet which started out in 1830 were from the previous centuries Croatian literary history and highly influenced according to Vitezović's ideal (one grapheme for a single phoneme, also previously prescribed by Czech Jan Hus) and it was shortly later inspired also by the medieval Croatian Glagolitic script (which was the very first Croatian alphabet which also contained digraphs), then was later simultaneously used as and developed as a Illyrian movement alphabet also, after the Revolutions of 1848 and end of the Illyrian and Pan-Slavic Movements it just simply continued on as the foundation for today's Croatian alphabet. The Croatian language and alphabet continued to follow it's own course, especially since the last century where it has been free to do so without foreign obstacles and agendas. It will be the next official European language, along with it's alphabet and script, to enter the European Union come 2013. When one recalls all the information that you've read so far, after inclusion into the U.N, other world bodies and in common vernacular use in all spheres, it can only be considered as a lasting and final crowning vindication)

    Updated May 11, 2012.

    Statue of Ljudevit Gaj currently located in downtown Zagreb on Ljudevit Gaj street.

    All of the above facts, dates, people involved, faked alphabets, images and technical terms involving the hurly burly world of language orthography and related script sciences, as well as briefly touching upon Croatian language and even political history, may seem like a lot of information to digest for the average person with absolutely no previous exerience in this field or is an orthography novice. (I'm not a university professor, but I know a fake, and faked things when I see them. A child can even see the errors and blatant misrepresentations throughout. Also, perhaps some may miscronstrue some things written as uncalled for meanness.  On the contrary, I've come across much more worse and nasty lies out there.  This blog contains Croatianicity humourisms and factually based retorts)

    ....That is why I've decided to add this entertaining addendum as a serious possibility. (It even includes an actual photograph from the 19th century to prove my point). A hypothetical series of probabilities, events  and surmising done in a thought provoking and eye opening way, that just may enlighten and give a clearer understanding of the facts presented to the reader regarding this post. If you have a rudimentary knowledge of Croatian history, you may even be amazed and astounded. But above all, the underlying theme of the epic you are about to read is about the above mentioned topics of orthography, diacritics, digraphs etc. The plot will tie in various topics related to Croatian language history, people, places, events and other synchronicities and enigmas. Especially if the reader even is a true believer of reptilian shapeshifters, Bigfoot, that Elvis is still alive, Jackalopes, images of Jesus and Abraham Lincoln in potato chips, and maybe a fan of programmes such as X-Files, Star Trek, Buck Rogers, The Fly, Back to the Future, Ma and Pa Kettle meet the Creature from the Black Lagoon, The DaVinci Code, Ancient Aliens, Twighlight Zone, Fact or Faked/Paranormal Files on the Space Channel and whole bunch of other similar films that you like to watch with a big bowl of buttery, crunchy popcorn under a comfy blanket on a rainy and thundering Friday night in the dark living room, with the howling wind causing tree branches to make tapping noises on the window.....

    The following is based upon a 1st person account interview with an anonymous person who had been a historian and lecturer at various European museums, universities and centers of study for European history, Slavic languages philology and archeology, he eventually was employed at the Croatian National Archives in Zagreb, Croatia...


     List of Croatian dictionaries:

    "These things are strictly confidential, and I will only tell you once. Some of these facts are commonly known in our community, and the community of professional people who investigate observable phenomena, however some things even I was not supposed to be privy to or ever hear about. Many people had risked their lives to uncover the information that we all now are privileged enough to know, and reconsider with awe.  Consider yourself privileged and a very lucky individual, as I am.  Thousands have died just so that you may hear these words..."......Anonymous - University of Zagreb, 2004

    ....."It had been hypothesized for quite some time now, that Ljudevit Gaj was not in fact a reptilian shapeshifter at all.  Over the decades there have been astonishing discoveries, revelations and most recently from various private publishing house archives  From old bookstore dusty back rooms as well as from the dark, danky cellars and tunnel ways found deep below the streets of Zagreb.  Amazing manuscripts and documents containing also esoteric symbols that point to something almost beyond belief.  Not only there however, but over the years also in Prague, Paris, in dripping and dark catacombs underneath the busy streets of Rome, within the walls of Dubrovnik, in recently excavated areas in and around Knin Fortress, within the soft black earthen hills of Tomislavgrad and other places as well, all pointing to something new, something amazing. Something so astounding and spellbounding that some scholars have disengaged from studying further on this topic for fear their hearts would burst and explode, or their minds go insane from finding out the truth of those times.   It seems very likely and  probable now, based on the abundant evidence presented by world renown and respected archeologists, scientists, historians, physicists and philologists over the years, that on the day of April 13th 1834, Ljudevit Gaj did indeed start work on another project of equal importance to his standardizing work on the Croatian alphabet, script and  language. An endeavor that was besides being a bulwark for Croatian language, history and culture. Something entirely different and unforeseen......

    .....It was a rainy, hard gusty evening on that long approaching day of April 13th in the year 1834.  It was at approximately 9:52 pm (according to our sources) that Ljudevit during an eerie moment of lucidity like he had never experienced before, had started work on his long dreamed of  'teleporting time machine'.  It was a vision that had been keeping him up at night ever since he was a child. Waking him up in the middle of night, red faced and gasping for breathe,  throbbing hot temples and sweat on his brow,  always so sure that the dream was real. (His mother had grown so tired of having to comfort him at all hours of the night when he would wake up screaming and shivering)  Eventually, years later as a grown man, his dream and visions of being able to teleport himself to the past, as well as to the future, and then back again, had become a reality after all. He did not dare try his new invention yet, but he knew that it would work. Like a rush of adrenalin traveling from the bottom of his feet, leading up to his temples. Just like he knew that that the moon was round and the that morning arrives before nightfall,  he knew it would work. He had kept his invention tucked away in his shed, covered with canvas tarps and straw,  nestled in between the wine barrels, blocks of different cheeses, empty flasks for liqueured drinks,  and extra carriage wheels. There it was kept safe from the elements, from the burning sun, from the frigid cold and from prying eyes, certain prying eyes that were phosphorous with malevolence, and jealousy, (Eyes like that had a name in the olden days, those olden days had many, many tales to tell)...  until the day may possibly arrive when he would be in need of it and should have to use it..........

    That day did indeed arrive it seems.  It arrived like a bad case of fever, a fever and cramps and a dizziness that had travelled all the way from his stomach, then leading up to his chest, reminding him of when he was a child. Travelling like a slow polluted worm until it eventually reached his head and mind, then whispered in his ear that now was the time for great things to be accomplished.   It was at a time years later, in April of 1850 that he eventually uncovered his time machine, unlocked it and brushed away the years of dust, soot and loose pieces of straw. It looked shiny and sparkling in the sunlight sneaking in through the cracks of the shed, just like it did the day he locked it away.  It was the following day that he steppped inside his 'time machine' for the very first time, with sweating brow and heavy heart hoping that it would not be his last as well.  He was following a will that was not his own, yet at the same time was very much so. Ljudevit filled his lungs with sweet smelling smoke one last time from his pipe before casting it aside, took one last sip of his cherished homemade wine and placed the empty glass on a nearby wooden crate.  He stepped inside and firmly closed the door behind him, sending echoing metallic claps into the twilight. (Some ravens were helping themselves to some morsels of corn and barley that was spilled by the opened  front doors of the shed,  then quickly darted away when that metallic sound echoed through the valley.  Some children playing by the well looked up and watched them fly up to the nearby tall trees, and then rest there watching all of them, watching things unfold from above....

    ....He sighed a deep sigh as the echo was still emanating throughout the shed, he cursed the moon that this day had to come...he hoped for the best and proceeded to navigate the controls. "There was no turning back now" he thought, .."They were coming, it won't be long now, those Medusa-like tentacled horrors, and those approaching rumblings of future flocks and fiends that only he and the select few could sense through the earth, like an oncoming cankerous storm of hooves, blasphemies and unspeakable absurd strangeness, bubbling from the bowels of the earth as from some ancient flotsam and jetsam filled bubbling caldron. (And those horrendous looking specimens of footwear, from whence those ghastly  monstrosities that have perplexed him for ages?). Ljudevit was ready now, (The horrors were worse than he could have imagined)... there was still time to stop the monstrosity that was approaching from far off in the distance, his 'time machine' was completed and at the ready now, ready because now "they" indeed will be coming and seeking things to call theirs and theirs alone".............. 

    (........At this point the manuscripts that were discovered and  found in various parts of Zagreb and other places are tattered, worn with age and are unreadable, smudged in places, cracked and corners missing from pages, leaving a void of time and space before being able to continue with this amazing epic of history known only to those who know, and the elect chosen few. The accounts of where exactly and what precise time into the future Ljudevit had traveled, still remains a mystery to a high degree.   All that can be verified based on carbon dated manuscripts, DNA samples (Rumors also of being included in a group photograph taken in Paris, which is kept in secret state archives of some Baltic country) and eye witness accounts, is that it is known beyond the shadow of a doubt that Ljudevit Gaj did indeed travel in his time machine to the year 1893, and was for a span of 2 days spotted walking on the streets and at various unusual locations. But not only Paris..No....but also on the streets of Prague, Split, London, Zagreb, Rome, Vienna and a small town in Vojvodina as well.  (The 1 photo of him which was miraculously discovered in a local photographers archives in 1976, is of him during his few spent hours in London, the only photograph that is available for the uninitiated to view)   The photo was miraculously found because of his later mentioning to some of his inner circle about the carriage accident he had witnessed on his travels, how he tried to help the girl with the bloodied forehead who was still clutching her doll.  (A chambermaid had overheard this while washing the linen and performing other chores at the mansion)  Dressed for the most part in his usual clothing and holding his trusty sabre at his hip at all times. (Except for the span of only a few hours during his time spent in London, it was reported he was getting very strange looks from the vegetable stall workers, and chimney sweeps it seems). He was usually spotted in the company of people, with unknown individuals, but strangely also, every sighting included him being in the company of the same always accurately described, strange hypnotic-eyed woman. (There are less substantiated accounts of him being seen the day previous in Moscow and Paris as well, even in both cities on the same day and at precisely the same time of day, which has perturbed many in the field of quantum physics, worm holes, time travel mysteries and our time travel investigators)

     An official reproduction of the photo that captured Ljudevit Gaj, (Only his head is visible below arrow unfortunately) ...that was taken at Wandsworth in the city of London in 1893. Discovered by a team of "unexplained phenomena and worm hole time travel" investigators in 1976, the photograph is guarded and in safe keeping by specialists of these scientific fields. Nobody, save for highly trained specialists working for various world bodies, have access to the original photograph. The only thing known for certain is that for 6 months of the year it is in possession by scientists and investigative specialists working at times for The Louvre in Paris, The Nationalmuseet in Copenhagen, The Vatican Archive Museum and the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. (Special thanks to Prof. Svetlana Petrovna from the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg for kind permission to use this reproduced image).

     ......He was always seen clutching a leather embroidered case, with checked patterns and stars and some sort of strange looking horned animals, and other designs on it.  There were various printed papers and manuscripts inside.  He was seen  holding onto the case as if inside was a pandora waiting to be let loose upon the world, releasing some sort of cancerous winged worm to torment mens and womens lives for eternity.  But it wasn't that at all, rather something enigmatic and so spellbounding that the same care and attention in protecting the case was needed.  In it was a Medusa-esque secret and danger, but a danger only for "them".  Eye witnesses have verified that he was seen conversing with strange men and women, seen speaking with these unknown darkly dressed individuals  underneath street gas lamps in the dead of night in the aforementioned locations,  speaking with embassy people and attractive long haired ladies, speaking on the dark cobbled back roads and by the gates of various estates and manors dotted through the more sophisticated parts of town.  The best eye witness accounts of him were given by a troika of girl waitresses who were working at the U Fleku Pub in Prague that one rainy and stormy night. (It was the most memorable storm in many years, the night that St. Vitus Cathedral was struck by lightning, almost causing a fire. A few tombstones at Vinohrady Cemetery also were struck and destroyed)  The girls that were questioned stated that without a doubt it was him they saw drinking beer and laughing that night, laughing with those strange, mysterious people, (and that long locked woman again, the one with the translucent eyes. She strictly remembered that woman's eyes and never forgot their translucency) if not having a worry in the world. One of the girls, (her name was Magda, a recent arrival to Prague from Jastrzębie-Zdrój in Poland, in search of work in the many officer, soldier and farm merchant filled pubs) ..a tall lanky girl, with brown curly hair, and an attractive bossom.  She stated to the investigators that she strictly remembers the words Ljudevit said to her when she brought his drinks to the table.  "Hej Girl, did you know that this glass of beer is really 2 glasses of beer?" he lightheartedly asked, before passing her the coins, telling her to keep the change, and continuing to converse with his enigmatic looking and mysterious mannered table guests. All of them sitting at the back by the tall dark wood paneled walls. Writing things on pieces of paper, carefully writing and whispering, agreeing and laughing, clinking large glasses of beer all through the night, making toasts until the early hours of the morning.......

    An etching from a Russian artist featuring Ljudevit Gaj in the company of a Polish and Slovakian baron somewhere in Prague. The etching has been positively carbon dated to the year 1639.

    .....The various manuscripts deteriorate exceedingly again at this point.  All that can be verified from this point of time, based on the manuscripts and personal accounts, is that approximately 9 months before his death in Zagreb in April of 1872, Ljudevit did give this case full of manuscripts, which also included an 8" x 10"  lithograph of the sketched and painted likeness of himself clutching his favorite sabre, along with a certain  future calender date written on the back of the lithograph, to some members of his inner circle for permanent safekeeping.  In the case was also included some written instructions, some other sketches, and some lyrics to some sort of song or poem. It wasn't accurately determined which.

     These members of his inner circle were sworn to abide by the instructions that he had given them, to abide by them or terrible things may happen, things which will make their children's children, and their children after them, wish that they had never been born. He and his inner circle conversed that warm summer night in 1871, just like that chilly day in April of 1850, after his arriving back from his first and only time machine travel adventure,  listening carefully to what he was telling them.  For many hours they listened.  He told fantastic things and they listened to every word...things unheard of before or after, ...and then everything was put back into the case and locked, then locked even again and placed in a safe location in the back of the dark cold cellar of the mansion. (It had been rumored that it was hidden within a wall, at the back of the cellar, and then bricks put back in place with mortar over the cavity just to make sure.)  Ljudevit's cherished sabre was also handed over to be put in a safe place. Ljudevit told them in 1850 that he would give the case back to them again, at a future allotted time and date, and he did as he promised on that rainy day in 1871.  He told them that he had also written another future date on the back of the lithograph containing the lithograph, his sketched and painted likeness........

     ....That case full of the manuscripts, along with the lithograph of Ljudevit clutching his trusty sabre at his hip and his handwriting on the back, and also the other written material, was eventually opened again. They were opened on that specific date that Ljudevit had written on the back of the lithograph himself, the date Ljudevit told them to open it on, way back in 1871. His inner circle had sworn not to open the case until that date arrived.  And that day did finally arrive, it arrived not with hesitation or with an ominous foreboding, but with an anticipation and lucid clarity that reminded them of the time when they were all children. When they could here the chocolatier and his wife coming into town in their carriage pulled by those clip-clopping large nostrilled and hard breathing horses.  With his attractively decorated and sweet smelling, ribbon-tied wares, bells ringing and his wife always singing those chocolatier songs from the farms where they were made. (That's when  they would all run home as fast as they could, to beg for extra coins or pull on mothers apron, making all kinds of ridiculous promises, as if their lives depended on a few pieces of chocolate).........

    ....The case was finally opened on the evening of December 31st, 1899, at exactly midnight, just as they had all agreed to do all those years before in 1871.  His inner circle had accomplished the task that Ljudevit had given them way back then.  They accomplished Ljudevits exact instructions that they all swore to many years before, not a one of them had broken the pledge and the duty that they were told to do. They followed exactly even though they didn't understand why he wanted them to do so.  It is not known if Ljudevit Gaj's inner circle was ever told about the time machine, or whether they knew exactly where and how far into the future he had travelled to. It is not even certainly known now,  beyond the shadow of a doubt, whether anybody knows where the time machine is today,  if it indeed does still exist.  Some say that it is lost..lost forever.  Some say that it was melted down and included in the cast for some statue somewhere.  Some reports state that it was taken to St. Petersburg and is currently stored away with  items that belonged to Peter the Great, items which he brought back with him from his western travels. There are even some theories and rumours about it being buried in a deep cave, a cave that almost nobody knows about, in the north slope of Medvednica mountain which is just outside of Zagreb. There it is supposedly protected and safe and ready to be used again should the need arise. (Some say that it was indeed used again, that it was brought out by the people who knew, used for the span of 3 days in the 90's, and then quickly hidden away again under lock and key.........)

    ....All that is known for sure however, is that on that snowy night of Dec 31st 1899,  a few members of his inner circle did open the case as they promised to. They opened it by the light of the fireplace, after they had all put their glasses of beer and wine and heart warming cognac down on the table. After the leader of the group had  opened it, they all looked inside, peering over one another's shoulder, trying to see what was inside. No rushing phantasm or horrid stench of carcasses came spewing out when it was unlocked and opened. No cacophony of screeching and putrid smelling wailing owls or bats in a misty green fog, to attack them and make all kinds of Hellish awful noises, No,... not any of those things. When the leader of the group took his hand and placed it inside the case, his mouth dropped instantly.  The only things he could see in the decorated case was the lithographed image of Ljudevit.... but stranger still,  a small lock of some woman's shoulder length hair, which was tied tightly with a long white string,..and a shiny reddish and green apple. And only these 3 things alone.

    The case had been locked all those years and then even locked again in the deep cellar of the mansion all this time, but all the manuscripts and other written notes were gone. Vanished! The leader of the group was speechless, confused, dumbfounded, shocked.  The apple was unrotten, looking as fresh as though it had been picked just that afternoon from a nearby tree, to be used in a pastry or for some fine tasting jam...."But it's winter now" thought the old man, "Where on earth could this fresh apple have come from?...What is going on?  Who put this apple in here?". The leader looked around the room, glancing at all the men's faces, then looked back at the case..."Who's hair is this?!, How did it get in here?!..What is going on?!"...The leader of the group was on the verge of fainting, his face was tingling, he could hear a buzzing echoing in his ears, but he stood strong, he had to. He left the apple and locket of hair alone in the case,  then took the lithograph  and brought it closer to the candlelight, so that the others may see also.

    It was that same image of Ljudevit all right, the same colorful lithograph he had written today's date on the back of,  and then placed into the decorated case himself back in 1871. The lithograph of himself with his sabre that he showed them in 1850.  There he was, holding his cherished sabre, (He really liked that sword, he said it always felt right hanging there by his side, the leader of the group recalled).....and there was Ljudevits grin, that old familar half hidden smile. Smiling like he had a secret to tell,  a secret for the future that was so marvelous that he was barely able to contain himself, yet a smile that was not to be fooled with. (People heard the stories, he could hold a sword as well as a pen it was said). But upon closer examination of the back of the lithograph, the written date of  "December 31st, 1899" was not there any longer. It was gone, vanished. He strictly remembered watching him write the date with his own eyes back then, before he placed it in the case. (He even dipped his pen twice in the ink, he recalled, to make sure that it held enough, he always did that)   Now there was no trace of any kind of ink at all. The old mans heart was starting to skip beats and his toes felt like they were covered with ants. "Where did it go?  Huh? What?...What is happening?"  He thought.  In it's place instead there was now some other words in Ljudevit's handwriting. (It surely was Ljudevit's handwriting, he remembered the way he wrote, even the way he used to hold the pen, and curse when he ran out of ink or paper, ...When did he write it ??) .....his handwriting made a written sentence that was not there when the case was locked and hidden away so long ago.....

    The leader of the group put on his spectacles, brought the written words closer to his eyes and the light of the candle, then read the words that were in Ljudevits handwriting. After a moment he turned his head and  looked away. He looked out of the window, into the blackness of the night and just stared, a blank and shocked look across his face. (He could hear the sound of ravens cawing out somewhere in the wintery vast dark beyond.. "How odd and strange that I should hear them now"  He thought). The others in the room yelled out after a minute, a minute so quiet yet full of electricity that if Ljudevit himself had knocked on the door, they wouldn't have heard or cared.  "What is it?  What does it say?!"  one of the group asked.  The leader of the group just kept staring out of the window, remembering what Ljudevit had told him all those years ago...remembering it like it was just yestereday....remembering now why they did what they did, remembering Ljudevit's grin and earnestness, remembering Ljudevit holding his sabre and mentioning "her" and mumbling some things back then about Prague, about some people in a pub, some machine of his that he made, (Machine? what machine did he mean?  They were all drinking a lot at the party back then in the 50's's, it was Jelena's birthday afterall, and each of them was slurring a little here and there. The cognac and beer was going down just too smoothly and easily that autumn)....about the people he met and talked to, about that lady, about her eyes, something about the womans eyes, about Moscow, and then again, while firmly holding onto his sabre in that familiar pose of his, mumbling again and again about his machine and Prague, about that strangely familiar looking woman with the lovely hair and those magical eyes, and those other people he met in Prague, again and again......

    "What is it man!!??...You've become as white as a ghost!!  What is written??!!  "Tell us what it says!?? ..We must know!!!..shouted a few of the other members from the back of the room....The leader of the group, still staring at the snow coming down outside, and seeing the wind and cold start to attack and frost up the glass in the window, he could hear the people laughing and toasting and celebrating from the large room down the hall of the manor. (It was midnight now, time was flying, it was a new century now after all, a brand new century, time for new ideas, new ideals, new horizons, horizons that recall past horizons and greater glories)...He then dropped the lithograph from his hands to the table, and suddenly recalled again. He recalled that night in 1871, the night Ljudevit gave them the case for the 2nd time,  and told them what would happen in the future. What the ramshackle strange footed hordes from the east would try to do in later years. Back then Ljudevit uncannily foretold them that "they"  would come, looking for things that "they" can call theirs and theirs alone, calling things new names according to their obsessive need for new and better tasting hosts to prey on. Tentacles drawn and searching for more hosts to bleed dry and then toss away, like an apple core thrown to the swine that was taken from a foreign farmers tree. He told them to be prepared, to not give in and  believe their promises, insolent stories, brackish prophecies and twisted oddity inspired customs, (which were in reality nothing but a foreign painted collection of bric-a-brac visions on a shelf, mixed among other dull and worn trinkets of deceit)..  but also most importantly what his inner circle were to do in return. The old man ( He'd been leader of the inner circle for over 50 years now, his fingers all of a sudden felt very old, was he dreaming? Who said that? Who's there? Was the blistery winter wind outside talking to him?) .. Suddenly he looked back at the fireplace, then remembered.  It all came back to him now.."Of course!" he thought..."That's it! of course!".  In a flash of light it all came back to him, like an aroma of baked apple goods would always send him back many years to his childhood days, into that room where he would wait with heart thumping and tapping toes for the beckoning words that the pies were ready and that he may come out with his plate and fork.......

    He glanced at the string tied lock of hair and the fresh, attractive looking apple that was still in the case, the apple still as shiny and perfect looking as it was a few moments ago, and then looked outside of the window again, and he whispered the words. The words which had been caught in his throat for minutes now, as if stuck or being unwilling to be spoken, or as if he wasn't worthy to speak them, or frightened what may happen to him and the others in the room once they were spoken,..(Were they all losing their minds? Those Ravens, the hair, the apple, what was happening??? Why the Ravens on this night of all nights!? ) ...but the words were now free to be set this precise this time......because now was the time....

    ...""Jedan narod treba samo jedan jezik i jedan rukopis, daj njima samo jedno slovo i ništa više, i samo jedan put....L.G. - Listopad 1893 " (One people needs only one language and one script, give them only one letter and nothing more, and only the one time...L.G. - October 1893.) The room full of the members of the inner circle immediately became silent.  The wind was very, very strong and bone numbingly cold outside, the hardened  frozen snowflakes making tapping noises on the window as if wanting to come into the warmth of the room, and the sound of the wind making the sounds that winds usually do, but they were all still and silent. The wine, beer and champagne flowed freely that very early morning, ushering in the new century and a new day.  (there was much joy and laughing, stories were told, congratulations given, many toasts were made, and bottle after bottle was uncorked well into the morning).... It flowed like it had never flown before, and tasted unusually fine, finer than ever before.

    Postscript.  - September 17th, 2008.   

    The lock of hair and apple that were found in the case that night of 1899, were given to a particular group of connected men and women who were familiar and knowledgeable about such things. It has been rumored that the lock of hair is under the care and protection of individuals associated with the Brethren of the Croatian Dragon. The apple was, according to the best knowledge of our anonymous source, eventually relocated along with many other manuscripts and mysterious objects, to important individuals who reside within the walled city of Dubrovnik, and secret locations among the Molise countryside. Clues left by some of the manuscripts have led archeologists to the  Polish-Ukranian border area, where currently teams are working to find other astounding things based on deciphered clues in some of the manuscripts. A number of  individuals who are known through certain circles to the anonymous source of this epic account, have assured him that they have been in contact for some years with Croat-Krashovani spokespeople in Transylvania, near Severin County, Romania.  Investigators are perplexed by the genuine carbon dated signatures on one of the manuscripts, verified to be containing penmanship from the famed Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov and a slightly newer signature, verified by experts, without a doubt as belonging to Benjamin Franklin.  (The complete details of the manuscript have never been disclosed however, save to a few unspecified individuals in the vocation of time travel mysteries and unexplained phenomena)  They have been rumored to be safely stored away, along with Croatian Royal documents originating from the islands of Lastovo, Krk and from the coastal hinterland town of Tomislavgrad.  They were written in Croatian  Glagolitic, signed by a Croatian Royal Duke and transferred to a very unusual place, especially unusual for those days of antiquity. So unusual that other  documents are stored there as well, those were delivered there via a famous Gothic envoy who resided for a time in the vicinity of Lombardy in the year 438. The envoy was buried there eventually, with some of his garments and possessions transferred to the town of Mursa.  

    It has been speculated by historians and archeologists, based on glimpses that they were allowed to view by the people in possession of some of the mysterious manuscripts, that it was concerning correspondences between the father and predecessor of Croatian Duke Porga and Pope John IV dated the year 640, and was concerning about some type of agreement and some strange and very secret duties to perform.  Some of the writing contained a previously never before seen script and characters, where anything remotely similar seen was only discovered on the banks of the  Bug river in 1833. (Those manuscripts were a not completely translated version of the legend of the Valkrie Hervör alvitr and mentions the ancient Slavic God Svetovid, also with it was a preserved copy that is currently stored somewhere in St. Petersburg of the Hervarar_saga (Mainly the excerpt about where king Heidrek dies in the Horvatya (...und Harvaða fjöllum)  That attached saga was reportedly to have been penned somewhere in the Carpathian mountain ranges.  (Rumor has it that it was stored initially within the crevices of one of the tallest peaks in the Carpathians - Nomen est omen)  Similarly a crown, bones, swords and various manuscripts were also located deep within a cave overlooking Attica in Greece, in the year 1803. The Swiss archeologists who uncovered the astounding find reportedly handed the treasures to aristocratic noble families in Greece, who as benefactors funded the expedition based on communications and agreements with Croatian men of letters. Dated to early Byzantine times, the discovered items were quickly put in safe keeping in the hands of trusted individuals.  (Some say that a family in Athens, who are direct descendents of Emperor Heraclius himself, are in possession of the artifacts, as well as correspondences with some early Croatian nobles and princes)

    It was several years later in 1905, during an Autumn time morning in Ljudevit's Gaj's hometown of Krapina, the story goes......that a young boy was playing amidst the apple tree orchards. Running to and fro in the taller grass with fresh tasty apples in his canvas sack slung over his shoulder.  A bright big grin on his face. His mother told him to go fetch the best apples he could find for a fresh apple pastry dish she was going to prepare that day, auntie was coming later from Zagreb for a few days. (Nemoj mi dati jabuke sa gliste! Pazi da onaj stari srbin sa zamazane ruke ne uzima naše jabuke, Brzo!) The boy did as his mom told him, he must have packed about 15 apples into the sack, even though she asked for only 8. He came running through the door and threw the sack onto the kitchen table, feeling proud for picking probably the best looking apples in the whole town. His the story goes......opened the sack and proceeded to take out the apples to wash in the sink. The boy was watching from the kitchen table chair, he could already almost smell the apples baking in the oven and was already deciding how many slices he was going to eat. Suddenly she looked at him with an expression of bewilderment, and then looked into the kitchen sink again. "I thought I told you to just get me 8 apples?, and here you brought back too many, and even one that is already cut into pieces"  (Nemoj zezat!)  The boy said that he only brought back the best whole apples he could find off of the tree and was bewildered as well.  "Well, maybe you could make 2 apple pies now." said the boy. "You know I don't have enough flour, butter or eggs for 2 pies." she said.  "Here, eat this one  so they don't go to waste"  The mother gave the boy one of the apples and then continued washing the rest. The boy took a bite and then noticed something strange. A white ribbon it seemed was coming from the center of the apple, like a worm, but it wasn't a worm at all, it was a white string-like ribbon. The boy took a nearby knife from the table and proceeded to cut the apple in half, curious as to how this could be. After cutting the apple in half and looking inside, he became amazed and suddenly excited. "Mom! Mom! look!" he said, as he put the apple halves in front of her on the kitchen table. She turned around to look at what all the fuss was about, thinking "What is it now? I haven't got all day to play games."  She reached down and picked up the apple pieces he laid out before her,, suddenly looking curious as well. She pulled the white ribbon in the apple piece and something came out of the core, seeming at first like a large pit or seed of some kind, something one would usually find in a peach or other kind of fruit or vegetable. She left the white ribbon on the table and looked closely at what it was that came out. It was a large gold coin, a coin with no writing or anything on it, she didn't recognize it but she knew it was made of gold, it was a coin so large and shiny that it would probably buy enough flour, butter and eggs to make a thousand baked apple the story goes........

    ......To this day however, after many years of searching and investigations, not one person, not even the many teams of paranormal and wormhole/time travel scientists and archeologists over the decades knows the whereabouts of, or has even to this day been able to find out the peculiar and enigmatic origin of Ljudevit Gaj's sword. (He always liked wearing that sword and it was never far away, so the story goes)..........


    .....Deep within the bowels of a building in Serbia, among the dark and dusty corridors and amidst various old and dry pages and books, there lies even to to this day pages and peculiar books from the past. Books written using an odd and strange looking Cyrillic alphabet with strange sounds. One particular page also containing these strange looking characters and the sounds that they represent, is tucked in between the pages of another old book, a grammar book from the early 19th century. The book and the page has been lying here since the early 19th century, gathering dust and surrounded by cobwebs and the dank and musky air. 49 strange sets of symbols in all. Not many people know that the books and this page are found here below the streets, locked behind doors with nothing but the odd cockroach to bide the time with them. After the times of V.K., many were sworn to secrecy, to keep the secret of the fate and final resting place of the Serbian alphabet and it's grammar, promising to never discuss or even mention it or it's history. For it is a thing that sends a shudder down the spine of Serb historians, a horrible and terrible reminder of the death knell of Serbian literary history. Only V.K.'s newly devised Cyrillic alphabet (and only parts of it's history and how it suddenly came to be) are allowed to be mentioned. There this old and worn page and the Serbian alphabet written on the page are found even to this very day. In the meantime, people are allowed to visit and look at books, grammars, dictionaries, old poems and literature and the Croatian alphabet and literary history in Croatian buildings, museums and libraries (as well as Ljudevit Gaj statues and museums)... anytime they wish. Bottom line...the Croatian alphabet/phonology continuity has never changed according to the rules of any other alphabet/orthography system, nor has it ever deviated or been abandoned to adapt to or follow any another alphabet/phonology system, nothing even approaching the situation of the drastic break from the literary past as in the Serb case. The centuries of unwavering and recorded Croatian literary history also prove these points conclusively. Case closed.

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