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Monday, 27 February 2012

Croatian History 101: Greater Serbian/Chetnik Plans and Propaganda. (Or Why We Were Teenage Non-Serbs/Non-Yugoslavs)







 A Chetnik member of the Serbian race at a rally supporting Yugoslav/Serbian President Milosevic during the 90's.






Before starting this particular very fact filled blog addition, I thought I would just set the tone for all the information you will read.  This is not a "Croatia is best at or, Croatians are better than.." post.  Just simply a rebuttal to stuff I've seen floating around in internetland.  (I've got better things to do with my time) Since the start of this blog especially however, I've been privy to many blatant lies, and instigating chicanery and childish antics on the part of certain misinformed people who call themselves "Serbian" and just can't seem to move on.  I think this photo of the "Baška tablet" and accompanying excerpt of text will set the tone for the rest of this post and maybe shed a little light on where I'm coming from...


"Prince Phillip and the Baška Tablet" - 


........"In addition, we might mention Mateja Matejic, Professor Emeritus of Ohio State University, in Columbus, Ohio, USA, who was to state in his lectures and books that the Baška tablet represents - a Serbian cultural monument! When he was once asked by an outstanding Croatian specialist of international reputation how he could claim this, he answered with a further gross indirection: "Serbian is an abbreviation for Serbo-Croatian."  Source: www.croatianhistory.net


Find out the real story behind this communist invented term, the Croatian alphabet history, literary history and much, much more at croatianalphabet.blogspot.ca.






Well, I'm probably sure there will be readers of this particular addition to my blog who will be scratching their head about this one. 'Croatian History'? But this is about radical Greater Serbian/Chetnik history?  (Many times, especially since the 90's renamed Jugoslavian history) And my answer to that query is...."EXACTLY"  You see, since first starting this blog, my whole purpose was about posting topics that were interesting to me.  Or to others, of Croatian background or not.  Very simple.  However, after noticing the vast amount of Serbian propoganda and outright lies out there in internetland, I felt I had to correct a lot of misinformation being thrown out there from Greater Serbian/Chetnik types.  Especially when they come to Croatian Facebook and other information portals to leave comments that show how pesty and full of instigating crap they are.  Like I don't get enough childish crap from them when wearing a Croatian related sports jersey once in a blue moon.  The topics and facts I will present below may seem like a lot of information to absorb at first, but essentially it's a brief step back in time that ties some historical moments together to bring us where we are today.   To give some insight as to why the republics of the briefly existing entity of Jugoslavia went their own way.  Later additions to this blog will expose other misconceptions and misinformation on a particular subject.  With the underlying purpose being to expose centuries old Greater Serbian myths and lies.  Afterall, Croatia was a unified and recognized Kingdom about 300 years before Serbia, who were a scattered tribe  in the 1st Bulgarian Empire on the other side of the Drina river.  Covering the area's  which are very close to the current borders of the Republic of Croatia, albeit smaller now due to  Islamic invasions with the eventual result in the appearance of the Republuc if B-H.  Speaking the 'Croatian language' and ruled and inhabited by 'Croatians'  (aka Non-Serbs) Which through the following 600 years essentially had no formal relationship or dealings with Serbs across the Drina. (Except for the times when Croatian soldiers were sent to assist in stopping the Ottoman incursions along with other European nations)  Serbs who were constantly at war with their neighbours and who's borders were constantly in flux and everchanging.   Like I mentioned, more on that later on another addition.



 

Pictured here are Greater Serbian nationalist Chetniks questioning "What's all the fuss about a little ethnic cleansing and genocide.  Don't you want to go for a ride in our Yugo?




So, in a nutshell, yeah, this is where I decided to start. Why? One may ask? Well, As a non-Srb, believe me, this is probably the last thing I wanted to discuss about on this Croatia related blog. 'Best to let sleeping dogs lie' and 'No point flogging a dead horse has been my mantra when it comes to the short life and death of 'Yugoslavia'  I know plenty about the history of it since the beginning.  Up till now I rarely mentioned any topic that related to politics in Croatia whatsoever, and haven't even touched discussing the wars of the 90's or Serbian so-called "war heroes". I'm also not particularly interested in miltary subjects these days either. (I had enough of that in my Canadian military days)  I've been totally concentrating on the here and now, future of Croatia and my place in it. As well as adding posts about topics that are interesting to me and people like me. I originally was going to do something about more historic aspects of Croatia down the road. Subjects like the history of our language, of why out of our 3 major dialects, the historic Dubrovnik area Štokavian dialect became the official Croatian literary standard, the failed attempt at inventing and standardizing a so-called Serbo-Croatian standard language, the Croatian Spring of the early 70's.  Stuff like that.  Even including less known subjects like the purposes and true meaning of the 19th century Croatian 'Illyrian Movement'(Ilirski pokret) and of the Statuta Valachorum act of 1630 and it's relation to the former Croatian Military Frontier. (Vojna Krajina)  The effects of the 2 major Serb migrations since the 17th century into not only Croatian lands, but Hungary and other Habsburg possesions as well.  How the first Jugoslavija came about only with the very hasty back room agreements between a handful of non-elected people in the last days of World War I, and why that was.  How the term Jugoslavija actually first came about, what it envisioned, which nations were included and why it lasted a paltry 70 years.  Possibly even also touching upon less well known topics like (speaking from an objective point of view and not supporting any religious organization)...the history of Orthodox Christianity in Croatia and the thorn in the side of Greater Serbia/Chetnik thinkers it's existence is for them, as well as the very interesting facts that even  the acknowledgement of Croatian Orthodox history and the historical implications it has for Greater Serbian/Chetnik propaganda. (Meaning, even before Croatian Kings, Dukes and Princes pledged allegiance to Rome (As opposed to Byzantine rule) over a thousand years ago, they were called "Croatian"..ie.. Rex Croatorum, dux Croatorum, Regnum Croatorum, etc)

For English only readers,  more information can be found HERE, (As well as more information about the background and thoughts of the inventor Nikola Tesla and his supposed "Serbianess", plus much more)   Just to elaborate a little further, and to compare the Greater Serbia/Chetnik arguements to other European countries with minorities.  I give the example of the Baltic countries. Especially Estonia and Latvia, both with a significant Russian minority. Yet in those cases, Russia (Russian Federation) and their minorities had the common sense, wisdom, and foresightedness not to even attempt to forcibly take territory that doesn't belong to them, let alone ethnically cleanse, commit ethnic genocide and cause widespread willfull destruction with no regard for civilian lives. (A much commendable foreign policy that was extended to the other former Soviet Republics like Ukraine, Belarus etc)  Much like the wisdom of the Hungarians vis-à-vis Croatia, who have a vastly much longer history with Croatia. (Austria-Ditto) The peaceful independence of the Czech Republic and Slovakia from the former Czechoslovakia also comes to mind. Can you imagine the world outrage if Russian government troops, heavy weapons, tanks and air craft, as well as minority paramilitaries and private armies, (openly armed by Russia) started to ethnically cleanse and bomb cities and towns of the Baltic countries? Or of Ukraine? But that's radical Greater Serbian Chetnik mentality for you. And that's why all the surrounding nations opted to not live in a made up country with them.  Especiallly when they want to run it like their own little private game of spin the bottle, but change the rules of the game after each spin of the bottle. I also know of a couple of Serb Chetnikitas who work in the downtown area, and like to think that a local little mall is their personal stomping ground. They also like to think that they're really smart and sexy. (Yeah, adults acting like 5 year olds on a candy sugar rush is a a real turn on.)  I've come across tons of them and I'm chock full of information, very well acquainted with the histories of the European matrix, not only ghetto-city mentalities.






  For instance,  I highly doubt these Croatian girls really care about Serb chetnik philosophies or how many Serb war criminal photos can they hold at one time,  3 finger Serb ultr-nationalist salutes, Serbs found on t-shirts throughout this blog... etc and so on. (I definitely know they don't care about THIS either. ewwww)





I was also hoping (When I found time) to touch upon the history of Croatian Glagoljica script, the history of our Croatian Coats of Arms, Symbols, Our Kings, Queens, Bans, Castles, Dialects, Art, our place in the history of Europe, and a whole bunch of other interesting historic stuff.  Like I've mentioned previously on this blog, over the years I've been very eclectic in my reading, and delved into alot of sources and reading material concerning not only general Croatian history, but Slavic, Pagan and general European history as well. (Even going back to my military days for instance, when the guys wanted to watch some Schwarzenegger, or Rambo flicks for the 3rd or 4th time, I found it boring and decided instead to drive downtown to the local bookstore and get books about a wide range of  topics to pass the time.) For instance, how many Greater Serbian propagandists even know that the earliest examples to be found of the Stokavski dialect used in official and religious literature/work are from the Dubrovnik and Dalmation Croatian areas, which then seeped to the surrounding areas, from where it became more widespread. How many of them know about what was the literary/official language being used in Serbia until the appearance of Vuk Karadzic's overnight major language reforms and what Serbia's initial, (especially the area of Vojvodina) feelings were about this sudden, out of nowhere new standardized language and dialect. From a Slavic-Russian-Serbo hybrid in Serbia to what Croatians were already speaking in and writing literature in for hundreds of years is quite the drastic change. Croatian, like other major languages,(English, French, German, Norwegian, etc ) didn't need a major language reformer, just minor tweaks here and there, to standardize. Croatian is a language that took centuries to evolve and seeped to literature and written official use from the vernacular naturally like English, French, German etc. Our first dictionary dates from 1599.

There was no need for a major language reformer that drastically changed the language practically overnight.  Many of the changes/adjustments the self-taught Srbien linguist Vuk Karadzic made to the 'Serbian language' were already present in Croatian. Great literary works in the western Štokavian idiom from the Croatian coastal and Dubrovnik area's go back hundreds of years before Karadzic. Karadzic initially even planned on incorporating the "Ijekavian" (Ijekavski) reflex into his new emerging official Serbian standard language.  A reflex that had a history in Croatian literature for hundreds of years and with absolutely no history in Serbia, which is "Ekavian".  Karadžić chose "ije" reflex as the basis for emerging Serbian standard language (although virtually all works covering the fields of literature, lexicography and philology written in the "ije" reflex in 350 years preceding his reforms belonged to the Croatian culture and were, logically, considered by eminent contemporary Serbian scholars as something alien and non-Serb) Our great intellectual linguist, writer, journalist and politician, Ljudevit Gaj even refused to be a signatory to the unbinding, hastily and hazily put together unofficially recognized Vienna Literary Agreement.(Statement actually), and not much was really agreed about either.  About 30 years of Srbien efforts to change Gaj's original Croatian latin alphabet to exclude ‹dž›, ‹lj› and ‹nj› and be replaced by  ‹ģ›, ‹ļ› and ‹ń› were in vain.  Many attempts before and since then to hijack Croatian literature, spoken vernaculars, folk stories, etc, have been made, all in the name of espousing it as exclusively Serbien.  (The Republic of Montenegro is also having the same issues regarding the works of  Montenegrin writers over the centuries.  In Serbia they are called Serbian and translated into Serbian. Serbs even deny the very existence of someone being Montenegrin).

This was very evident over the course of the 2 Jugoslavija's by Serbian words being forced to be taught in Croatian schools. books and especially state-sponsored media under the non-existent and seemingly benign description of "Serbo-Croatian". Croatian words, especially of the Kajkavian or Cakavian dialect were always discouraged/omitted in favour of Serbian words with no history in Croatian literature. The term"Serbo-Croatian" is a dinosaur relic term of Communist Jugoslavia, to try to forcefully invent a new language by combining the 2.  The end result always being that one or the other has to give in and accept the others words, thereby losing their own rich literary history. That task was doomed to failure from the start, just like Jugoslavia.   That term is still seen here and there, although less and less, when it used by uninformed internet or language sites.  (Even these days try saying "Bok" (Hello/Hey/Bye), which is a dialect of Zagreb, "kruh" which means bread, "tisuća" which means thousand, "kolodvor" which means train station, "mrkva which means carrot, or a bunch of other words, or any month of the year in Croatian if in Serbia, and you'll see the strange looks you'll get, if you're lucky.)   Even when the Serbian refugees from the Ottoman empire era, crossed over into Croatian territory, and over the generations started speaking the ijekavian dialect, and using Croatian words, they even started calling that Serbian even though Serbs in Serbia are strictly "ekavian". (Not to mention harassment in the workplace, threats, beatings and worse, just for calling yourself Croatian, or questioning why Croatian history being taught was almost non-existent)

To prove this point, I would like any reader in internet land to write a paragraph in "Serbo-Croatian"...exactly.  Can't be done. Words of one language, (Usually Croatian as history teaches us) are omitted and replaced by Serbian words. This isn't a symbiosis of languages, just usurping one over the other. A bygone relic term and tool of Tito's communist ideology.  Just like trying to write a paragraph in Czecho-Slovakian, or Russo-Ukranian.  Or to give just a couple of many examples, in Belgrade, for instance, čakšire (чакшире) was the only word for trousers before World War II, today pantalone (панталоне; a borrowing from Italian) is current. In Croatian they are called hlače. Some 30–50 years ago avlija (авлија & Turkish avlı) was a common word for courtyard or backyard in Belgrade, today it is the native Slavic dvorište, which Croatians had always been using. (двориште) This is a result of Serbia being under Turkish Ottoman domination for about 500 years. Serbian language, culture and society was influenced in many ways. 





  Besides numerous False friends between Croatian and Serbian, here are a few more examples of Serbian words with the same pronunciation and meaning in the Turkish language that are not standard Croatian language:




astal- table
alva -some kind of Turkish delights
kafana- some kind of bars,caffe
begenisati- to love somebody
belaj- bad luck, evil
gajtan- wire
đuvegija- boy for marriage
dušman- enemy
jarak- canal, hole, gap
jok- no
jatagan - some kind of weapon
kalabaluk- crowd, mob, heap
konak- some kind of hotel, room for sleep
komšija- neighbour
kurtalisati- save, free oneself
melem- some kind of nature pills
plajvaz- pen
pendžer- window
perišan- some kind of jewelry for woman
sokak- street
džakati- speaking loud
avlija- courtyard
badava- gratis, free
gurabije- some kind of cakes
ratluk- Turkish delights
čaršav- linen, bed-sheets
zejtin- oil for cooking
kapija- fence enclosure
bostan- watermelon
džem- jam
peškir- towel
ćilim- carpet
čorba- soup





Later failed attempts at making an umbrella term to forcefully join the 2 languages was without logic and negated historical language usage, words, etc.  The whole concept was being used by a few Serb linguists based on the musing of Jan Kollar.  (He was the first one to try to fuse and do the same thing. ie make a "Czechoslovak" language.  This attempt ended in failure as well, many Slavic linguists, including Czech and Slovak ones, didn't take it very seriously.  Thankfully, today we do have the Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Belorusian, Croatian etc..languages.






For much more information about the interesting history of the Croatian Latin script alphabet, Ljudevit Gaj, The Croatian National Revival of the 19th century, the Illyrian Movement, digraphs, diacritics, history of Croatian dictionaries. literature, the subterfuge attempt by the "Serb camp" of the 19th century to attempt to steal the Croatian Latin script alphabet, and much, much more at croatianalphabet.blogspot.ca







This  particular Greater Serbian trait is evident and can be found in the habit of Serbian being added as a prefix to many everyday nouns and places. (Serbian grass, Serbian milk, Serbian sky, Serbian food, Serbian Sea, Serbian areas, Serbian lands, Serbian Heaven..etc.  Serbian lands is a very popular one with them.  Like no other people in Europe. An obsessive kleptomania in regards to other Slavic peoples history, culture, literary history and their lands.  Serbian lands is a very popular one with them.  Like no other people in Europe. (See Here) I've come across many places on the internet where all kinds of fantastical dreams are told concerning this notion. Stating even that all South Slavic country areas were Serbian even "BEFORE" the Slavs arrived there, (Time warp I guess) complete with very fancy made up maps that had fancy arrows and some crappy music even.) There's even something strange in the words of the Srbian St. Sava, who was the founder of the Serbian Orthodox church. "...we are doomed by fate to be the East in the West and the West in the East, to acknowledge only heavenly Jerusalem beyond us, and here on earth - no one." ( Serbian St.Sava, 13th Century) I personally don't give 2 shits about Serbia, have absolutely no interest about the goings on there, or in their communities wherever they are to be found. Why should I? (Like this post is about, I've seen, heard and experienced enough of their crap.),..Anymore than I care about the next Muslim holiday or soccer team standings and scores from Middle Eastern and African countries. (Frankly just not interested, I don't like anchovies on my pizza either.)

Another example taken from the Serbian National anthem I added below. Maybe it's just me, but it sounds really elitist, chauvinistic and kind of (yawn) preachy  (Members of the psychiatric profession community would even call it paranoiac narcissism.) .....I can understand the term "Slavic race", or even "Noric, Dinaric or European race", but "Serbian race"? What's up with that?  To me it sounds like something basically made up.  And if one has studied even a little bit about the topic of Slavic and European hablogroups, it's proven that it is made up.  (Again religion sticking it's nose into politics) If one has studied the history of the Serbian Orthodox Church, one comes to the realization that they had a large role to play in this way of thinking.  Especially vis-a-vis Montenegrins and in neighbouring B and H and elsewhere.  During science class when we were studying anthropology/biology in my schoolie days, I don't recall 'Serbian' being the 6th race. (Maybe I was away that day, or in the washroom)  It seems these extremists have this big obsession with any Slavic peoples, countries or entities in South-Eastern Europe all being part of some 'Serbian race'.  (Whether science, anthropology, history or Non-Serbs like it or not)  Perhaps my above mentioned points are better understood after reading the lyrics of the Srb national anthem/theme song.






English translation for Non-Srbs:



God of Justice; Thou who saved us
when in deepest bondage cast,
Hear Thy Serbian children's voices,
Be our help as in the past.
With Thy mighty hand sustain us,
Still our rugged pathway trace;
God, our hope; protect and cherish
 Serbian lands and Serbian race!
Bind in closest links our kindred
Teach the love that will not fail
May the loathed fiend of discord
Never in our ranks prevail.
Let the golden fruits of union
Our young tree of freedom grace;
God, our Master! guide and prosper
Serbian lands and Serbian race!
Lord! Avert from us Thy vengeance,
Thunder of Thy dreaded ire;
Bless each Serbian town and hamlet,
Mountain, meadow, heart and spire.
When our host goes forth to battle
Death or victory to embrace-
God of armies! be our leader
Strengthen then the Serbian race!
On our sepulchre of ages
Breaks the resurrection morn,
From the slough of direst slavery
Serbia anew is born.
Through five hundred years of durance
We have knelt before Thy face,
All our kin, O God! deliver,
Thus entreats the Serbian race!

bla...bla...bla...


.....(Yawn, pfff,  like what are we talking about in this instance, fucking genetically engineered Klingons or Clones?) 




Clones and cloning.







One is left scratching their head after reading their national anthem/theme song, and then this business about some mystical magical ancient Serb something.  I sense a personality and identity crisis, grasping for anything to verify their existence and so-called race. I really wish these Serbian race people would get their shit together and let me know when they have themselves figured out already.





(Actually, I looked into this Serb race business and came to an eye opening conclusion in the past.  That quite contrary to propaganda, there really is no Serb race at all, they are just an adjective, a foreign imposed appellation.  Then just a Serb church, lots of people with cheese crumb infested beards and kooky pointy horned shoes.  When this fact is realized and no longer able to be hidden, then a movement was started to invent Serbs and a new Serb history. See Here)



 Ljudevit Gaj (Non-Serb) commemorated on a Croatian stamp.



A statue of Ljudevit Gaj I took on my last trip to Croatia.  This one was located in Zagreb, one of many found in towns and cities across the country.   


 
Stjepan Radić, a prominent and influential Croatian (And Non-Serb) politician from even before the hastily made 1st Yugoslavia was imposed on Croatia.  He foresaw troubling times for Croatians under Serb hegemony and with rule coming from Beograd and the Serbian dictator-king. During his time as leader of the H.S.S (Hrvatska Seljačka Stranka) and before he was shot in parliament by a Serb politician, based on what he was witnessing, and the trampling of Croat rights and culture, he realized that if things continued the Serbian way, the "Croatian Nation" would cease to exist.



 
Some footage of Stjepan Radic from Croatian Television explaining how after the demise of the Austro-Hungarian empire, the Croatian people and government in Zagreb had no say and did not elect to unite with Serbia.  At the beginning of the rule from Beograd he was told by Serbian politicians that it won't be long until the names "Croatian and Croatia" (Hrvat and Hrvatska) will be mentioned no more.  Since that time he campaigned for an independent Croatia.

 
 
A portrait of Stjepan Radić (1871-1928) on the 200 Kuna note.  A Croatian politician who was in 1928 assassinated in the Yugoslav parliament for speaking out against Greater-Serbian hegemony.





Anyway, getting back to this particular post again, as much as I've been focusing on the present Croatia and related news/sports/entertainment subjects, and our history, it just seems I've come across quite a bit of crap and rubbish on the internet regarding this subject.  And in some of the least likely of places too.  Like Croatian Facebook groups, pages, online Croatian news portals, and even on pages that have nothing to do with history at all. For example, when reading an article at a Croatian news or sports portal, or on a Facebook page about Croatian gastronomy, entertainment or tourism, or even about the latest Dinamo or Hajduk soccer scores, results from a competion involving Blanka Vlasic, Ivica Kostelic, the Croatian handball team etc.  Why do I (we) constantly have to read comments from people who write things not even remotely related to the subject. Why would I be interested in reading comments there, of all places, (in some different language and from a different country) from someone ranting about how Serbia is the greastest! The Serbs/Chetniks will all come back and make a Great Serbia again! That Croatians NEVER EXISTED ! That Serbs are the best soldiers! Best this and that, We're jealous that we're not Serbs!, that wherever there's a Serb, that's Serbia! bla..bla...bla.  This is behaviour that is not experienced from any other people who were from the former-Jugoslavia or belong to one of their independent countries or ethnicities.  (That says a lot) Combined with the antics from Serbians that I've come across over the years, including these days,  it's really tiresome, lame and prebuscent.

I would recommend to them instead to get over it.  Yugoserboslavia/Greater Serbia is dead and buried, and none of the surrounding Republics are interested in any kind of political ties or confederation with them.  Croatia (along with the Croatian language)  will soon be a member of the European Union and full fledged partner, as well as leader in that area of Europe, while Serbia's government is still lacklusterly searching (at the worlds behest) Serbian war criminals in hiding.  Also, I've come across sometimes comments that are so absurd, misinformed, lacking any kind of facts whatsover and in many cases are just outright blatant lies. Twisting facts, words, (even images) sensationalizing, transforming aggression towards neighbouring countries and peoples as heroic defensive campaigns. Total rubbish.  There's not one country in all of Europe (or the whole world), that can lay claim to such over the top rhetoric and blamelessness in the face of mountains of contradictory evidence that overwhelmingly proves otherwise.  And again, this addition is from a Croatian who doesn't, (and hasn't for the longest time)... consider himself religious. (I was Croatian before I was baptised) But rather a realist, pragmatist and keep your deity to yourself type person.  Not some agent of some religious institiution or political entity/movement. One would have a better chance of getting me to give up eating pork, škampi na buzaru, ćevape, and drinking pivo for the rest of my life than trying to pigeon-hole me as being part of some suit and tie conspiracy.




 
So long story short, this is where my 'Croatian History' addition starts off.  Perhaps strange at first glance, perhaps very strange to some, but  a necessary one to eradicate any preconcieved notions one may have concerning Croatian history in relation to Serbian, as well as other countries. I would much prefer to be discussing more interesting current events, but I figure this factual rebuttal to comments left on those sites I mentioned, was better than getting into a comment-war with someone who doesn't know what the hell he's talking about. Slinging mud is very mundane and unproductive. Consider it the flip side of ages long and current one-sided Greater Serbian/Chetnik propaganda.

 I've been privy to this kind of mentality for a long, long time. For example, Just FYI, My last  city of residence has a sizeable Serbian population, and their church is located on Nash Rd.  However, to Croatians it was recommended to not move into the area, because to the Serbian community it was called НАШ Rd. (Pronounced NOSH, which in Serbian means 'Our Rd.' -Yeah, that's how ridiculous it is, but at least in that example they decided not to ethnically cleanse the neighbourhood and loot the homes)  I was hoping it would be different in this city, but I was warned that their mentality is the same here also.  They like to go around , spread false rumours, and encourage their lackeys as well as places of employment and employment services businesses to not hire people of Croatian background or at least just cause as much b.s. drama as possible. (Again the nash/nosh/our mentality). Whether they're qualified for the job or not.  Then go around pretending like they never said or implied anything.  (Nooo, not little ol' me, I'm just Canadian, that's all. Honest I am, eh?)  I've come across similar instances of this kind of behaviour.  Putting up a Croatian flag on my balcony near little Portugal during a UEFA soccer tournament brings similar antics to mind. In this city, favouritism of one ethnic group against another(s) always exists, but blatant Serbian hijinx and chauvinism takes the kremšnita. I recall one particular "adult" from the Srbian "race" back in Hamilton, Ontario.  Suit and tie type bearded guy who worked in the downtown mall somewhere.

Always snickering about something, like a fucktard. I think it was just before Euro '08 and I think I wore my Cro soccer jersey once or twice. I was also feeling kinda down because my sister was dignosed with cancer and not doing well.  Well, this Serboid was relentless, just like a bunch of them I came across at College the following year. I guess acting like a fucktard somehow makes one feel superior in a hopped up on twinkies kind of fucktard way.  (I wonder sometimes if they act in the same manner when they come across an Italian, Polish, German, Norwegian, Bulgarian, Lithuanian, whatever, (even Montenegrin now) soccer jersey or sports related attire. The image below was passed onto me that was taken off a Serbian bloggers site.  It sort of shows the kind of mentality I'm talking about as well.,  I'm not sure how old the person is who made it, which version of Serbia it is implying here. (The pre-Greater Serbia or after?,  before the temporary self proclaimed criminal entity "Srpska Krajina" or after?, before they got bombed by NATO and Kosovo became independent or after, or even before Montenegro opted for independence or afterwards?
 
 
 


Perhaps an allusion to 2 faced? or 2 girls 1 cup? Possibly about that Serbian guy who has custody of his 2 kids on weekends since getting divorced because his wife was cheating on him with 2 guys for 2 years? Could it be about digraphs and diacritics...but the Serbian alphabet doesn't have any doesn't have any, the Croatian alphabet does.









I've come across this scenario quite a few times since moving out west.  Back in '08 when I went back to college for some courses, and one day was wearing my #66 Cro soccer jersey,  another member of the "Serbian race" he got all spastic and excited. Pulling out his cell phone, yelling in the hallways about how he's got 2!  (With that familiar grin on his face like in the Chetnik photos below)  Rubbing his hands and practically foaming at the mouth.  Saw him walking around holding a twinky in each hand one time, still going on about have 2.  He must be related with the ones around here.  This scenario is quite frequent with them.  "I've got 2 this!, I've got 2 that!."  Anyway, I don't use  wikipedia as my sole source of information either btw, not by a long shot.  This will just to get it out there quicker, save me time and give some food for thought before the next addition, which will be named Part II. I think eventually this 'Croatian History' series will be transferred to another blog site which will be entitled similarly, and then sequenced accordingly.
 
 
 
 
  *Note-  With Jesse Ventura (Who is of part Slovak background and a Non-Serb as well btw) ...seriousness from his television program Conspiracy Theory, the images I added were to visualize or emphasize certain points. No attempt was made at sensationalizing events or other. There was no need to. I have access to untold number of graphic vids, documents and photos, but decided to just add ones that get the point across.  These, and many more images, documents are not copyrighted and are out there on the net for anyone to look into, if one was so inclined.(However, please keep in mind, with over 70 yrs of media manipulation, all images/media/claims must be thoroughly examined and verified, as with all publicly available information, or the terrorists have won.  As for those Serbians who like to talk and preach about their unblemished, heroic sacred cow history,  well, they can chew on this for a bit. Source: en.wikipedia.org
 
 
 
 
 
 Map of both territories claimed by proponents of a Greater Serbia as well as territories historically held by Serb states. This includes territories held by the short lived Serbian Empire under Dušan, by the Kingdom of Serbia in 1918, Serb claims to Vojna Krajina, Serb claims to Slavonia and the unrecognized Republic of Serbian Krajina, and other Serb nationalist claims by Chetniks in World War II and by Vojislav Šešelj.
 
 

Here's an example from before the Serbian aggression machine went full throttle. "Wacko" Seselj on Serbian television "explaining" (with audience agreement and chuckles) how 20-30 Chetniks will take care of the Croatian army by gouging their eyes out with rusty spoons. That the greatest danger to Serbia from Croatians is only their bodies flowing down the Sava river and clogging up at Belgrade. ( Croatia, he exclaims, supposedley bought nuclear weapons from Hungary. btw)  That old tiresome mantra that Croatia('ns) do not exist, that after "Greater Serbia" is achieved he will go and vacation to the new "Serbian city of Split, on the Serbian Sea (Adriatic Sea) That Bosnia and Hercegovina and Macedonia don't exist and are Serbian lands. (See Serbian national anthem lyrics above) That after the war,  there will be 3 countries.  A Greater Serbia, a very small Slovenia and even smaller Croatia. Seselj  exclaims that Italy will help Serbia realize their goals.  (When NATO and the world finally had enough Serb/Jugoslav aggression and ethnic cleansing, many of the fighters sent to attack Serb positions in 1999 were sent from locations based in Italy) Seselj's fantastical visions (read delusions) of grandeur,  bizarre statements and awesome sense of humour actually helped him to become a very popular politician in Serbia. (One must remember, in Seselj's/Greater Serbian/Chetnik mentality, if a Serb moves into an area, it is automatically Serbian land/Serbia. Seselj is currently being tried at the Hague by the ICTY for crimes against humanity and war crimes, but even to this day still remains a very popular person, hero (and joke teller) in Serbia.


 
A closer look at the traditional Serbian/Chetnik  headgear, the shropsheepka.  


 
A Serb Chetnik ultra-nationalist displaying the 3 finger salute. (Many Greater-Serbia supporters imply it is just the sign for the 3 finger discount.) A little background on this salute below.  Used many times by Serbian Chetniks and Srb nationalist killing squads during the Serbian wars of aggression and genocide campaigns in the 90's.  It became mainly visible and hugely popular to show everyone that the tanks shelling the schools, homes and hospitals and the guys shooting unarmed people are Serbs (or members of the Serbian church, or people who have 3 fingers and can spell "Serb"on the wall with a machine gun)...and is popular for this reason today. Various interpretations and after the fact explanations: en.wikipedia.org/three-finger-salute but most likely taken from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwurhand (Note - It is known beyond the shadow of a doubt that it has nothing to do with the 3 ethnic constituent peoples in Bosnia and Hercegovina in 1992, as you will see, or more precisely the Serbs and 2 Non-Serbs)


 
 During the height of the Serbian aggression on Croatian cities, town and villages, many of the anxious volunteers being sent to the front lines from Serbia proudly displayed the Serb nationalist "Srb 3 finger salute".   Many times also before committing war crimes, ethnic genocide and crimes against humanity in other republics as well.  It is claimed by Srbs that it is simply a harmless sign signifying Serbian Unity and pride.   However, this particular '3 finger salute' was only first made popular by a Serbian extremist radical, (and former colleague of  war criminal Vojislav Seselj), Vuk Draskovic (seen below) at the start of the bloody assault on Croatian cities, towns and villages.  It was soon mainly used by Serbian/Yugoslav, Chetnik and volunteer paramilitaries coming from Serbia to join in the attacks on Non-Serbs. This salute is an insult to all Non-Serbs living in the former-Yugoslavia, as well as basically a middle finger to European civilization.



Vuk Draskovic pictured in March 1991.  One of his most popular (To Srbs anyway) words were that "Those who, on Serbian land, lift any flag other than a Serbian one, whether it's a Muslim, Albanian, or Croat flag, will be left without the flag and without the hand" Vuk's speeches were always reminiscent of other Greater Serbian/Chetnik wackos. (See Seselj interview above) Always containing references to the Srb Orthodox church, The battle of Kosovo in 1389, Serbdom, Serbian lands and Serbian race. Esoteric speeches infused with quasi-religious undertones, preaching that so-called "Greater Serbia" and Serbdom was at stake and being attacked by the evil west. That the outside world is the enemy of Serbs and their church.  Vuk Draskovic went on to become Deputy Prime Minister of Yugoslavia and Serbian Minister of Foreign Affairs in 2003. 


 
 
Serbian  "sport fans" displaying fascist and radical ultra-nationalistic salutes and symbols. 



 
Current Serbien Prime Minister Boris Tadic, puttin on his Chetnik shropsheeka.  



 
Serbian President Boris Tadic at the opening of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing.  Here he is photographed greeting Serbian athletes with the fascist "3 finger salute".



 
After the controversy regarding President Tadic displaying the Serb ultr-nationalistic and fascist sign,  Serbian media tried to blow over and downplay  the topic by posting  photos of former American President, George Bush, also proudly displaying the fascist 'Serb 3 finger salute'.  The photo as reported on Croatian news portal 'Jutarnji List' however, turned out laughably to be a cropped and edited fake. (What else is new?)



 
At a market in Prijedor, the Serb-controlled area of Bosnia.  Quaint pictures of Serbian Chetniks and war criminals put alongside saints important for the Serb Orthodox church. (Here an unidentified woman is admiring the tie on Serbian war criminal Radovan Karadzic) Chetnik organizations are cult-like.  Elements of Serbian Orthodox religious tennets, historical revisionsim, militaristic themes ad nauseum, suspension of disbelief and an "Us vs the World" mentality. Battles lost centuries ago are portrayed in a mystical, religious setting and used as fuel to help achieve current and past Greater Serbia ideologies and political machinations. Such as the taking of neighbouring countries land and national entities by force or hopeful political machinations. In Serbia this fusion of the Serb church, war criminal saints and ultra-nationalistic themes is popular.  See Here (Getty Images)


 
 

 
 Ratko Mladic, being embraced by Serbian Orthodox clergy during the height of the Greater Serbia campaign. Chetniks and Greater Serbia supporters are under the spell of a mystical 600 centuries long myth. Believing that at the Battle of Kosovo, where the Srbien empire was defeated and their Prince killed, somehow entitles Serbs centuries later to usurp control and possession of neighbouring countries/peoples/entities.  (Many Croatian, Hungarian, Bosnian, Albanian and Polish soldiers fought there as well, btw, or it could have been a lot worse) No abhorent action, no amount of ethnic cleansing, no war crimes, NOTHING  is an obstacle to achieving their goal of conquering land from neighbouring countries.  Throughout the 90's Serb aggession on Croatian civilians, cities and towns, and massacres in neighbouring B-H, Srb Orthodox clergy, especially the Patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church, urged Serbian/Yugoslav President Milosevic not to let up.  But rather to send more arms and soldiers to "defend" Serbdom.  Yes, sadly, on the contrary, the Srbian Orthodox church is a open supporter and catalyst in spreading and adding to these myths, and therefore an accomplice to genocide.  




 
In Serbia, (and even in other countries) Chetniks stage large outdoor gatherings with blessings from the Serbian Orthodox church and even government knowledge. (Above can be seen just 1 of the terrible 7 'Srbija's gonna getcha' poses)  Even to this day at these gatherings they emphasize their loyalty to achieving Greater Serbia. They have speeches, carry pictures of Serbian saints and war criminals, promote ethnic genocide aganist all Non-Serbs and sing songs about how all is Serbia, only Srbs exist and of course "Greater Serbia".  (Velika Srbija) Like the Chetnik in the shropsheepka in this video HERE.
 
 
 
A long succession of Greater Serbia advocates is the catalyst of this ultra-nationalist organization.  An organization that is proud of any plan or attempt by violence, ethnic cleansing, coersion or hopeful political machinations to depopulate totally all lands/countries where any Srbs live of Non-Srbs and unite them into a Greater Serbia.
 

 


 
Mitar Vasiljevic (In middle wearing Chetnik shropsheepka) upon returning to his town in currently Serbian race occupied Bosnia.  Mr  Vasiljevic was convicted by the Hague Tribunal for crimes against humanity, including killing spree's involving burning women and children alive 3 years BEFORE the Srebrenica massacre. Upon his return to his hometown of Visegrad, he was welcomed by masses of people as a hero with celebrations and music.  Many people people from the Serbian race, including an orchestra, travelled even from Serbia to partake of the celebrations. Serb church congratulations as well.  srebrenica-genocide.blogspot.com
 
 

Serb Chetnik rallies are held in Serbia (above) as well as in countries where they live. The U.S, Canada and Australia have sizeable gatherings especially. There war criminals, ethnic cleansing and aggression against non-Serbs are explained, and sanctioned by the Serbian Orthodox church as the duty of every Srb to emulate.  All for the sake of Greater Serbia. (Note- Being photographed with a knife between the teeth is a very  popular thing at these events. Above is number 3 of the 7 terrible 'Srbija's gonna getcha' poses)




Serb Chetnik rallies are organized to instill ultra-nationalism and spin doctored, distorted histories. In this photo a Serbian Chetnik holds a toy machine gun.  (It is through images and hats like these that it is hoped all surrounding countries will come running begging to be part of Serbia) On numerous occasions at these rallies in Serbia, Srbian Orthodox clergy have even gone so far as to promote the taking of arms and continue the fight and reverse all failed attempts at realizing a Greater Serbia.  Defensive actions against Serb ethnic genocide campaigns are transformed and spin doctored into aggression against Serbdom.  The Serbian/Yugoslav aggression against Croatia in the 90's is a superlative example.  The accompanying rabble-rousing at these rallies is is proof that Non-Serbs have/had much to take into consideration.


 
A photo at Gamizestan, Kosovo from 2007.  This was the staging ground in 1989 where then Serbian president Milosevic fuelled the fire of Serbian ultra-nationalism against non-Serbs.  His speech was a forerunner of things to come to all non-Serb people living in the former-Jugoslavija.  Milosevic was especially interested in gaining the support of Serbian Chetnik organizations in and outside Serbia for his goal of making a Greater Serbia. (In the above photo, 3 Greater Serbia and Slobodan Milosevic supporters are at odds as to why their t-shirts aren't selling more worldwide)
 
 
 
Todays worlds most wanted man, Osama Bin Laden. Juxtaposed next to him are Greater Serbian/Chetnik war criminals who are celebrated as heroes, yet are responsible for innumerable times more deaths of innocent civilians in a much shorter amount of time. (Aren't you jealous you're not a Srb now)
 
 
 
Serbian Radical party supporter holds photos of war crimes suspects Radovan Karadzic (L), Ratko Mladic (C) and Vojislav Seselj (R) at the party rally in Belgrade, 24 February 2006. Poster reads 'God saves Serbs, Great Serbia'. (Getty Images)  



  
Greater Serbia/Chetnik thinking revolves around one creed.  The acquisition of any and all lands where any Srbs live at any cost.  Here 2 Serbian nationalists are arguing about how Croatians and Croatia doesn't exist. (And even if they did, they would be jealous of not being Srb...but they don't exist...so.....they're....Srbs, ..who are jealous...of...I mean...On second thought, Jesus is a Serb)



 
Supporters of Serbian/Chetnik war criminals (In this case Radovan Karadzic) continue to possess a delusional and disordered thinking pattern that supercedes reality.  
 
 
 
 A Serbian woman supporting war criminals Ratko Mladic (Left-who is in hiding and on the run from Hague prosecutors), Slobodan Milosevic (Center-Who went to Serbian heaven), and Radovan Karadzic (Right-Currently being tried in the Hague after being apprehended.)  The surreal and scary thing is there are multitudes of Serbs who agree with this crazy lady and support these 3 monsters and the heinous crimes they perpetrated on Non-Serbs in the 90's, right up to this day. (Various types of anti-psychotic and schizoaffective disorder medications are highly recommended)
 
 
 
Over the past 15 years, there has been a direct correlation between Greater Serbia becoming smaller and the amount of Greater Serbian/Chetnik '3 finger salute'  photos from parent's basements after dinner.
 
 

 
This is a photo of Serbian ultra-nationalist Chetniks in Bosnia.  Every year they commemorate the death of Draza Mihailovic and celebrate his attempt at making a Greater Serbia and the work of his killing squads.  Simultaneously they celebrate the war crimes and ethnic genocide from the 90's.  All under the watchful eye and blessing of the Serbian Orthodox church.  For far too long the relentlessly propogated myth that Mihailovic was a fighter for a restored Yugoslavia, has been told. Nothing could be further from the truth.  (See articles below)  His sole aim was the creation of a pure, ethnically cleansed 'Greater Serbia', with the Serbian king-dictator at the head of government.  His mantra was "For King and Fatherland", Fatherland being Serbia.



Greater Serbia radicals and ultra-nationalist members of Chetnik organizations suffer from a type of narcisism and psychosis.  Non-Serbs are viewed as non-existent or possible future Serbs. 



 

At Greater Serbia/Chetnik rallies in Serbia and elsewhere, age old myths and revisionist versions of history white washing genocide and ethnic cleansing policies are passed onto younger generations.  These 'Serbia-isms'  are instilled from a young age.  These kinds of people may  live next door to you,  may sip on their coffee at the next table, may be making photocopies in your office, may shop at your supermarket, may ask strange questions like "Do any Non-Srbs live in the neighbourhood?", "Will my home economics teacher next semester be a Non-Serb?", or may even be at your childs next birthday party.  Extreme caution is urged.  (Keep your best silverware and sharp pointy objects tucked away in the cupboard. Trust me.)







...Greater Serbia  

 
The term Greater Serbia or Great Serbia (Serbian: Велика Србија, Velika Srbija) applies to nationalist and irredentist ideology directed towards the creation of a Serbian land which would incorporate all regions of traditional significance to the Serbian nation. This movement's main ideology is to unite all Serbs (or all historically ruled or Serb populated lands) into one state, claiming, depending on the version, different areas of many surrounding countries. The Greater Serbian ideology including claims to territories of modern day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia and Kosovo[a]. In some historical forms, Greater Serbian aspirations also included territories of Albania, Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. Its inspiration comes from the memory and existence of the relatively large and powerful but short lived Serbian Empire that existed in 14th Century south-eastern Europe prior to the Ottoman invasion. Throughout history, attempts to achieve a Greater Serbia were related to war crimes carried out on ethnic and religious grounds (primarily against Albanians, Croats and Bosniaks)  
 
 
 
 
 
 
Historical perspective

 
Following the growing nationalistic tendency in Europe from the 18th century onwards, such as the Unification of Italy, Serbia - after first gaining its principality within the Ottoman Empire in 1817 - experienced a popular desire for full unification with the Serbs of the remaining territories, mainly those living in neighbouring entities. The idea of territorial expansion of Serbia originally formulated 1844 in Načertanije, a secret political program of the Principality of Serbia, according to which the new Serbian state could include the neighboring areas of Montenegro, Northern Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the early 20th century, all political parties of the Kingdom of Serbia (except for the Social Democratic Party) were planning to create a Balkan Federation, generally accepted the idea of uniting all Serbs into one only Serbian state. From the creation of the Principality until the First World War, the territory of Serbia was constantly expanding. After the end of the Balkan Wars, the Kingdom of Serbia achieved the expantion towards the south, but there was a mixed reaction to the events, for the reason that the promises of lands gaining access to the Adriatic Sea were not fulfilled. Instead, Serbia received the territories of Vardar Macedonia that was intended to become part of the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Serbian Army had to leave those coastal territories that would become part of the newly formed Kingdom of Albania. This event, together with the Austro-Hungarian Annexation of Bosnia, frustrated the majority of Serbian politicians, since there was still a large number of Serbs remaining out of the Kingdom. The Serbian victory in the First World War was supposed to serve as compensation to this situation and there was an open debate between the followers of the Greater Serbia doctrine, that defended the incorporation of the parts of the defeated Austro-Hungarian Empire where Serbs lived to Serbia, opposed by the ones that supported an idea of uniting not only all the Serbian lands, but also to include other South Slav nations into a new country.

 Among other reasons, but also because of the fear of the creation of a bigger and stronger Orthodox Serbia, that could eventually became a Russian allied, the decision of making an ethnically mixed South Slav state, where other nationalities would balance the Serb hegemony, was made. The Serbian Royal family of Karađorđević was set to rule this new state, called Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, that would be renamed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. Initially, the apologists of the Greater Serbia doctrine felt satisfied, since the main goal of uniting all Serbian-inhabited lands under the rule of a Serbian Monarchic dynasty was mostly achieved. During the inter-war period, the majority of Serbian politicians defended a strong centralised country, while their opponents demanded major autonomy for the regions. This tension grew to a point that led to the creation of opposing nationalistic organisations that culminated in the assassination of the King Alexander I in 1934. When the German invasion of Yugoslavia happened in 1941, these tensions grew to become in one of the most brutal civil wars that occurred in the World War Two.

The Royal Governament soon capitulated, and the resistance was mainly made by the Četniks, who defended the restoration of the Monarchy, and the Partisans, who supported the creation of a communist Yugoslav state. The Serbs were divided into these two factions, that fought not only the Nazi Germany and all the other neighbour Axis allied countries which also invaded different territories of Yugoslavia — the Italians, Hungarins, Albanians and Bulgarians — but also each other. Beside this, other Yugoslav non-Serb nationalists took advantage of the situation and allied themselves with the Axis countries, regarding this moment as their historical opportunity of fulfilling their own freedom aspirations, the Independent State of Croatia being by far the most recognized one. After the war, victorious Partisan leader Marshal Tito became the head of state of Yugoslavia until his death in 1980. During this period the country was divided in six republics. In 1976, within the Socialist Republic of Serbia two autonomous provinces, SAP Kosovo and SAP Vojvodina, were created. During this period, most of the Greater Serbian ideology followers were incarcerated as accused of betrayall, or exiled. Within the rest of the Serbian population, the vast majority became strong supporters of this new Non-Aligned Yugoslavia. During the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s, Serbia stood accused of attempting to create the entity of a Greater Serbia through Belgrade's direct involvement with the unrecognised Serbian entities functioning in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. 
 
 
 
 
 

Development of Greater Serbian ideology


Garašanin's Načertanije
 
 
 
 
 
Roots of the Greater Serbian ideology are often traced back to Serbian minister Ilija Garašanin's Načertanije (1844). Načertanije was influenced by "Conseils sur la conduite a suivre par la Serbie", a document written by Polish Prince Adam Czartoryski in 1843 and the revised version by Polish ambassador to Serbia, Franjo Zach, "Zach's Plan". From the 1850s onward, this concept has had a significant influence on Serbian politics. "A plan must be constructed which does not limit Serbia to her present borders, but endeavors to absorb all the Serbian people around her." The work claimed lands that were inhabited by Bulgarians, Macedonians, Albanians, Montenegrins, Bosnians, Hungarians and Croats as part of Greater Serbia. Garašanin's plan also includes methods of spreading Serbian influence in the claimed lands. He proposed ways to influence Croats and Slavic Muslims, who Garašanin regarded as "Serbs of Catholic faith" and "Serbs of Islamic faith". This plan was kept secret until 1967 and has been interpreted by some as a blueprint for Serbian national unification, with the primary concern of strengthening Serbia's position by inculcating Serbian and pro-Serbian national ideology in all surrounding peoples that are considered to be devoid of national consciousness.
 
 





Vuk Karadžić's pan-Serbism
 
 
The most notable Serbian linguist of the 19th century, Vuk Karadžić, was a follower of the view that all south Slavs that speak the štokavian dialect (in the central south Slavic language group) are Serbs who speak the Serbian language. As this definition implied that large areas of continental Croatia and Dalmatia, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina, including areas inhabited by Roman Catholics - Vuk Karadžić is considered by some to be the progenitor of the Greater Serbia program. More precisely, Karadžić was the shaper of modern secular Serbian national consciousness, with the goal of incorporating all indigenous štokavian speakers (Eastern Othodox, Catholic, Muslim) into one, modern Serbian nation. It should be noted that this linguistic definition of nation would have excluded parts of southern Serbia where the Torlak dialect is spoken. "There are at least 5 million people who speak the same language, but by religion they can be split into three groups ... Only the first 3 million call themselves Serbs, but the rest will not accept the name. ” — Vuk Karadzic, Srbi svi i svuda (Serbs All and Everywhere) This negative view is not shared by Andrew Baruch Wachtel (Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation) who sees him as a partisan of South Slav unity, albeit in a limited sense, in that his linguistic definition emphasized what united South Slavs rather than the religious differences that had earlier divided them. However, one might argue that such a definition is very partisan: Karadžić himself eloquently and explicitly professed that his aim was to unite all native štokavian speakers whom he identified as Serbs. Therefore, Vuk Karadžić's central linguistic-political aim was the growth of the realm of Serbdom according to his ethnic-linguistic ideas and not a unity of any sort between Serbian, Croatian or other nations. It has often been suggested that the Muslims of Bosnia are the descendants of Serbs who converted from Orthodox Christianity to Islam under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. Such views have been used to claim ownership of lands inhabited by other peoples (sometimes subsequently, sometimes not), much to the dismay of those inhabitants. 
 





Early criticism
 
 
Serbian writers and politicians in Austria-Hungary Svetozar Miletić and Mihailo Polit-Desančić fiercely opposed the Greater Serbia ideology, as well as the premier Serbian socialist from Serbia proper, Svetozar Marković. They all envisioned some sort of "Balkan confederation" that would include Serbia, Bulgaria and sometimes Romania, plus Vojvodina, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, should the Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolve. The term Greater Serbia first appears in a derogatory manner in a book authored by a Serbian socialist Svetozar Marković in 1872. The title «Velika Srbija» (Greater Serbia) was meant to express the author's dismay at the prospect of expansion of the Serbian state without social and cultural reforms as well as possible ethnic confrontation with neighboring nations, from Croats to Bulgarians. — Ilija Garašanin, Načertanije






Balkan Wars
 
 
 
The idea of reclaiming historic Serbian territory has been put into action several times during the 19th and 20th centuries, notably in Serbia's southward expansion in the Balkan Wars. Serbia claimed "historical rights" to the possession of Macedonia, acquired by Stephen Dušan in fourteenth century. “ ...for economic independence, Serbia must acquire access to the Adriatic Sea and one part of the Albanian coastline: by occupation of the territory or by acquiring economic and transportation rights to this region. This, therefore, implies occupying an ethnographically foreign territory, but one that must be occupied due to particularly important economic interests and vital needs. ” — Jovan Cvijic Serbia gained significant territorial expansion in the Balkan Wars and almost doubled its territory, with the areas populated mostly by non-Serbs (Albanians, Bulgarians, Turks and others). The Kingdom of Serbia temporarily occupied most of the interior of Albania and Albania's Adriatic coast. A series of massacres of Albanians in the Balkan Wars were committed by the Serbian and Montenegrin Army. According to the Report of the International Commission on the Balkan Wars, Serbia consider annexed territories "as a dependency, a sort of conquered colony, which these conquerors might administer at their good pleasure". Newly acquired territories were subjected to military government, and were not included in Serbia's constitutional system. The opposition press demanded the rule of law for the population of the annexed territories and the extension of the constitution of the Kingdom of Serbia to these regions.






Black Hand
 
 
Extremist Greater Serbian nationalist groups included the secret society called the Black Hand, headed by Serbian colonel Dragutin Dimitrijević Apis, which took an active and militant stance on the issue of a Greater Serbian state. This organization is believed to have been responsible for numerous atrocities following the Balkan Wars in 1913. In 1914, Bosnian Serb Black Hand member Gavrilo Princip was responsible the assassination of Habsburg Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, which set off an international crisis that led to the First World War. 
 
 





First World War and Creation of Yugoslavia

 
By 1914 the Greater Serbian concept was eventually replaced by the Yugoslav Pan-Slavic movement. The change in approach was meant as a means to gain support of other Slavs which neighboured Serbs who were also occupied by Austria-Hungary. The intention to create a south Slav or "Yugoslav" state was expressed in the Niš declaration by Serbian premier Nikola Pašić in 1914, as well as in Serbia's regent Aleksandar's statement in 1916. The documents showed that Serbia would pursue a policy that would integrate all territory that contained Serbs and southern Slavs, including Croatians, Slovenes and Bosnian Muslims. In 1918, the Triple Entente (Britain, France, and Russia) defeated Germany and Austria-Hungary. Serbia, which was allied with the Entente, pressured the allies to give Serbia the territory it requested. After the First World War, Serbia achieved a maximalist nationalist aspirations with the incorporation of the south Slavic regions of Austria-Hungary and Montenegro, into a Serbian-dominated Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The Allies agreed to give the lands of Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina to Serbia. At this time Montenegro had already been annexed by Serbia.
 
 
 
 
 
    
Greater Serbian aspirations before the Balkan wars 1912-1913, according to the Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars
 
Serbian and Yugoslav nationalists claimed that the peoples' had few differences and were only separated by religious divide imposed by occupiers. It was under this belief that Serbia believed the large annexations would be followed by assimilation. During the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, the government of the Kingdom pursued a linguistic Serbisation policy towards the Macedonians in Macedonia, then called "Southern Serbia" (unofficially) or "Vardar Banovina" (officially). The dialects spoken in this region were referred to as dialects of Serbo-Croatian. Either way, those southern dialects were suppressed with regards education, military and other national activities, and their usage was punishable.
 
 
 
 I should add here quickly the above map. Contrary to fabricated and invented histories by various Serb historians through the years, there is no such thing as 'Srbian lands' or even Serbs. Serbs are the invented ethnicity based on the Roman word for 'Slave'. While Croats are recorded in  De Administrando Imperio as leaving White Croatia  (aka 'Great Croatia also called White') and arriving to, liberating and then populating Dalmatia, Pannonia and Illyricum, Srbs are on the contrary recorded as arriving much later after initially arriving to Greece and then later moving only to Alba Bugarica (modern day Belgrade) It is recorded in numerous documents that the Roman assigned appellation and 'username' for Slave, (that is Serv), is how eventually Servs/Servs came to be Serbs. They were for the first centuries a part of the Bulgarian empire, and only after their weakening, Servs became a geo-political term used by the Byzantine empire for people to be used as slave soldiers or labour by the Byzantine empire. Serbia = 'land of Slaves'.  Slaves is not an ethnicity or single people but a 'username' for slave. Servia was not an early realm but originated as a mult-ethnic "Slave Pool' which became associated with occupying free people centuries later. (Pssst, there's no such thing as a Serb ethnicity) No amount of fake histories, historians and ridiculous maps can change this fact. This and much more interesting real and sourced history explained at croatianearlyhistory.blogspot.ca.
 
 

 Events which led to the proclamation of the 'Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes' in 1918, soon led to the Royal Serbian dictatorship which on January 6th, 1929 changed the name to Jugoslavia and outlawed political parties as well as  centuries old traditional borders. The concept of “Greater Serbia” was put in practice during the early 1920s, under the Yugoslav premiership of Nikola Pašić. Using tatics of police intimidation and vote rigging, he diminished the role of the oppositions (mainly those loyal to his Croatian rival, Stjepan Radić) to his government in parliament, creating an environment to centralization of power in the hands of the Serbs in general and Serbian politicians in particular. (Larger image) wikimedia.org.  More information: www.montenegro.org/abolish



It is documented that Chetnik massacres included even Serb civilians, as well as outside Serbia. In December 1943 in the suburban settlement of Vranic outside of Belgrade, royalist Serbs forces/Chetniks massacred Serb civilians in their homes who were only suspected of maintaining links with communist Partizans. (Sometimes Srb clergy were privy to and supported such actions as they are very tied to the movements, 'Serbs' has come to be equated since the middle ages with 'occupiers' ) Like in other similar incidents, based on eyewitness and survivor testimony, it was the Serb royalist Yugoslav/Chetnik general Dragoljub "Draza" Mihailovic who was responsible for giving the orders. The above image was taken from an article entitled "Chetnik Massacres of Serb Civilians in Vranic" from the Montenegrin website crnogorskapitanja.wordpress.com



 
 
 

Chetniks Greater Serbian project
 
 
 
During the Second World War, the largely Serbian royalist Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland headed by General Draža Mihailović attempted to define its vision of a postwar future. One of its intellectuals was the Bosnian Serb nationalist Stevan Moljević who, in 1941, proposed in a paper entitled "Homogeneous Serbia" that an even larger Greater Serbia should be created, incorporating not only Bosnia and much of Croatia but also chunks of Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and Hungary in areas where Serbians don`t represent even a significant minority. In the territories under their military control, chetniks applied policy of ethnic cleansing against ethnic Croats and Bosniaks. “ The Serbs today have a primary and basic duty - to create and organize a homogeneous Serbia which must consist of the entire ethnic territory on which the Serbs live. ” 
 
 
 
 
 
A 1941 Chetnik conception based on a Chetnik leaflet entitled "Our Way" from the archives of the Institute of Military History in Belgrade.

 
  

Draža Mihajlović's infamous "Instrukcije" ("Instructions") of 1941, ordering the ethnic cleansing of Bosniaks, Croats, and other Non-Serbs. From Draza's "Instructions", all Croatians, and other non-Serbians would have to disappear from this territory, either during the war or immediately after it.
 

 
Just one example of many, of Chetniks posing with German and Italian soldiers during WW2. (Chetniks are willing to be anyones lackeys)



 
A German military officer converses with Kosta Pecanac (the pre-war president of the Chetniks) Date 20 October 1941.

 


2 Serbian postage stamps from 1941. Belgrade was the first city in Europe to be declared 'Judenfrei' (Free of Jews). The Serbian sign for the slogan 'Cвeti Caвa - Cpпcka Cлaвa' (Only Unity Saves the Serbs) can be seen in the corner and was widely used during the Serbian wars of aggression in the 90's. It is still widely used today.


 
Chetnik guerillas filmed while performing atrocities against an unarmed civilian in WW2.  These methods of "warfare" were very frequent during the course of the war, and repeated again in the 1990's in their war of agression on Croatia, as well as other non-Serb peoples.
 
 
 
Croatian children mutilated at the hands of Serbian Chetniks in the early 1940's soon after the disintegration of Yugoslavia.


 
 
Photos of Serbian Chetniks performing brutal acts on unarmed civilians in Serbia during the 1940's.  The Chetnik movement did not fulfill its genocidal intentions because it did not possess enough military units. Yet the main reason was the self-organized defense and armed opposition of the Croatian and Muslim people, which protected them from even more tragic Chetnik crimes in many places and brought about their military defeat.
 
 
 
 
 
Contrary to myths, widespread disinformation, and innacurate Serbian portrayal of various Chetnik and Serbian miltiary campaigns as heroic and just, it is evident there are still many facts that need to be examined anew and false information exposed from the centers of Serbdom.
 
 
 
 
 
It is alleged to have been a significant point of discussion at a Chetnik congress held in village Ba in central Serbia in January 1944. However, Moljević's ideas were never put into practice due to the Chetniks' defeat by Tito's Partisans (also predominantly Serb resistance movement) and it is difficult to assess how influential they were, due to the lack of records from the Ba congress. Nonetheless, Moljević's core idea—that Serbia is defined by the pattern of Serbian settlement, irrespective of existing national borders—was to remain an underlying theme of the Greater Serbian ideal. Also: Moljević's excursus into cartography has become a standard reference tool in modern Serbian nationalist repertory, ranging from a familiar image of Greater Serbia map frequently appearing in the mass media to the programme of the Serbian Radical Party.
 
 

 
 
Some footage from a History Channel series about the Serb paramilitary leader and war criminal 'Arkan'. He and his mercenaries caused some of the most gruesome killings in Croatia.  After the success of 'Operation Flash' and especially 'Operation Storm'(see vid below) in freeing the last remaining Serb-occupied territory, Arkan and his troops then escaped to neighbouring B-H, to continue the ethnic cleansing and voilence against unarmed civilians there.  The 'Cвeti Caвa - Cpпcka Cлaвa' symbol always proudly displayed in preparation for the next town or village. Arkan  was indicted by the UN for crimes against humanity. but was assassinated in 2000 before his trial. Rumours regarding the identity of the person(s) behind his death range from former business partners, rival underworld smuggling bosses and even supporter/partner in crime and Jugoslav President at the time, Slobodan Milošević.


 
Unfortunately, contrary to over 70 yrs of propoganda, especially concerning since the 1940's, new facts and information have been brought to the forefront since the dissolution of Jugoslavija. Information suppressed and intentionlly kept hidden from the world.  It is evident that Serbs are not as blameless and (by far) as Serbian propaganda has been relentlessly preaching over the years, particularly in regards to their aggression in the 1990's.






Role in the dissolution of Yugoslavia
 
 
 
 
The modern elaboration of Serbs' grievances and allegation of inequality in Yugoslavia was to be developed in the Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (1986), which was the single most important document to set into motion the pan-Serbian movement of the late 1980s which led to Slobodan Milošević's rise to power and the subsequent Yugoslav wars. The authors of the Memorandum included the most influential Serbian intellectuals, among them: Pavle Ivić, Antonije Isaković, Dušan Kanazir, Mihailo Marković, Miloš Macura, Dejan Medaković, Miroslav Pantić, Nikola Pantić, Ljubiša Rakić, Radovan Samardžić, Miomir Vukobratović, Vasilije Krestić, Ivan Maksimović, Kosta Mihailović, Stojan Čelić and Nikola Čobelić. Christopher Bennett, author of "Yugoslavia's Bloody Collapse: Causes, Course and Consequences", characterized the memorandum as "an elaborate, if crude, conspiracy theory.": The memorandum alleged systematic discrimination against Serbs and Serbia culminating with the allegation that the Serbs of Kosovo and Metohija were being subjected to genocide.

According to Bennett, despite most of these claims being obviously absurd, the memorandum was merely one of several similar polemics published at the time. The Memorandum's central theses are: * Yugoslavia is a Croatian-Slovene hegemony, in order to reduce the Serbs to a smaller representative group, or "power-sharing". * Serbs are, in Yugoslavia, oppressed as a nation. This oppression is especially brutal in Serbian Autonomous Province of Kossovo-Metochia, and in Croatia, where their status is "the worst ever as far as recorded history goes". * Serbia is economically exploited, being subjected to the political-economical mechanisms that drain much of her wealth and redistribute it to Slovenia, Croatia and Kossovo-Metochia. * borders between Yugoslav republics are arbitrary, drawn by dominant Croatian and Slovene communists (motivated, supposedly, by anti-Serbian animus) and their Serbian political lapdogs. The Memorandum's defenders claims go as follows: far from calling for a breakup of Yugoslavia on Greater Serbian lines claimed to be in favor of Yugoslavia. Its support for Yugoslavia was however conditional on fundamental changes to end what the Memorandum argued was the discrimination against Serbia which was inbuilt into the Yugoslav constitution. The chief of these changes was abolition of the autonomy of Kosovo and Vojvodina. According to Norman Cigar, because the changes were unlikely to be accepted passively, the implementation of the Memorandum's program would only be possible by force.







Milošević's rise to power
 
 
 
With the rise to power of Milošević the Memorandum's discourse became mainstream in Serbia. According to Bennett, Milošević used a rigid control of the media to organize a propaganda campaign in which the Serbs were the victims and stressed the need to readjust Yugoslavia due to the alleged bias against Serbia. This was then followed by Milošević's anti-bureaucratic revolution in which the provincial governments of Vojvodina and Kosovo along with the Republican government of Montenegro, were overthrown giving Milošević the dominating position of four votes out of eight in Yugoslavia's collective presidency. Milošević had achieved such a dominant position for Serbia because, according to Bennett, the old communist authorities had failed to stand up to him. This changed first in 1990 when free elections brought opposition parties to power in Croatia and Slovenia. By this point several opposition parties in Serbia were openly calling for a Greater Serbia, rejecting the then existing boundaries of the Republics as the artificial creation of Tito's partisans. These included Šešelj's Serbian Radical Party, claiming that the recent changes had rectified most of the anti-Serb bias that the Memorandum had alleged. Milošević supported the groups calling for a Greater Serbia, insisting on the demand for "all Serbs in one state".

The Socialist Party of Serbia appeared to be defenders of the Serb people in Yugoslavia. Serbian president Slobodan Milošević, who was also the leader of the Socialist Party of Serbia, repeatedly stated that all Serbs should enjoy the right to be included in Serbia. Opponents and critics of Milošević claimed that "Yugoslavia could be that one state but the threat was that, should Yugoslavia break up, then Serbia under Milošević would carve out a Greater Serbia". In 1990, power had seeped away from the federal government to the republics and were deadlocked over the future of Yugoslavia with the Slovene and Croatian republics seeking a confederacy and Serbia a stronger federation. Gow states, "it was the behavior of Serbia that added to the Croatian and Slovene Republic's belief that no accommodation was possible with the Serbian Republic's leadership". The last straw was on 15 May 1991 when the outgoing Serb president of the collective presidency along with the Serb satellites on the presidency blocked the succession of the Croatian representative Stjepan Mesić as president. According to Gow, from this point on Yugoslavia de facto "ceased to function"
 
 
 
 
 
Croatia and Slovenia were the 2 first Republics to have declared independence.  After countless fruitless attempts through discussions and meetings to come to a peaceful resolution with Belgrade in finally putting an end to the 'Jugoslav experiment', On June 25th 1991 both countries officially declared independence and cut off all ties with the former Jugoslav government. It wasn't long after that the relentless propaganda monolith from Belgrade, Serbia was in full motion.  In this video from Jugoslav TV at the time, armed troops from the Jugoslav Army who attacked Slovenia first, with tanks, armed troops, and even shelling homes with aircraft fire, are being portrayed as 'unarmed' Serbs.  Classic case of Greater Serbian/Chetnik twisting of words and images to suit their glorious cause and a taste of things to come. In this instance, under the guise of Jugoslavia. Right from the beginning of the end of Jugoslavia, the term Jugoslav was used interchangebly with Serbdom  whenever it was beneficial for propaganda purposes. The Jugoslav military was in a matter of days, almost 100% Serbian. Many times when the Serbian destruction spread to Croatia and B-H, the Serbian military would use the term to legitimize their attacks, destruction of things non-Serb and portray Belgrade (Serbia) as the only official government and attempt to fool the world. Even Serb claims that no Republic has the right to self-determination and to secede from Jugoslavia are false. One of the provisions of the 1974 constitution (Thanks to efforts from the Croatian Spring Movement) was that each republic officially had the option to declare independence from the federation. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yugoslav wars
 

 
A scene taken by BBC reporter of Serb/Yugoslav and Chetnik soldiers singing, Slobodane, Slobodane, šalji nam salate, biće mesa, biće mesa, klaćemo Hrvate! ("Slobodan [Milošević], Slobodan, send us some salad, [for] there will be meat, there will be meat, we will slaughter Croats" through the destroyed Croatian town of Vukovar in autumn of 1991. Vukovar endured over 3 months of indiscriminate shelling, rocket attacks and mortar fire.
 
 
 
The once beautiful baroque city of Vukovar after 3 months of daily indiscriminate bombardment and Serbian"liberation".  

 


 
After the city was "liberated", Serbdom required civilians who were forced to leave Vukovar, never to return.  


 

 
Chetnik and Serbian/Yugoslav troops after the "liberation" of Vukovar escorting a  Croatian special forces soldier. (Huh? What?)


 
 
2 Serbian Chetniks celebrating the fall (liberation) of Vukovar. Serbdoms greatest moment at the time. During the 90's war of agression against Croatia, Serbian communities around the world were rejoicing in Serbdoms accomplishments. (Aren't you jealous you're not a Serb now?)

 



2 Serb irregular militiamen kick the corpse of Croatian civilian. Vukovar, Croatia, November 1991. (Photo by Ron Haviv)

  
 
A "Yugoslav" soldier admiring the handywork after Serbian militiamen, Chetniks, and Serbian-Yugoslav troops "liberate" Vukovar.  The ethnic genocide committed at this first of many similar scenes by Srb killing squads,  was with the full knowledge and support of the Serbian Orthodox church. (Photo by Ron Haviv) 
 
 

Serbian/Yugoslav soldier celebrating the glorious victory of "liberating" Vukovar from Croatia.  It was scenes like this, and countless others throughout Croatia, as well as B-H that Serbian propoganda was relentlessly filling the airwaves and newpapers, inside and outside of Serbia, of the heroic war taking place for Serbdom against Serbdoms enemies. 
 
 
At 3:25 one can see a perfect example of the propaganda war in full swing. The term 'Jugoslavian' being used instead of Serbian/Chetnik whenever it suited their cause.  Accusing (remarkably) Croatians of doing all the killing against themselves.  (And the Yugoslav Army was there just having a big weenie roast I suppose) This scenario was seen untold times over the next 4 years, and the false histories are being told even today.
 
 
 
 
 
 
A series about the seige of Vukovar, with English subtitles. Heroes of the Homeland War - Vukovar (Part 1) 
 
 
 
 
The shelled and bullet ridden water tower in Vukovar. A reminder and testament to Vukovars citizens and defenders.


 
 
President Franjo Tuđman square located in the present day town of Vukovar.



 
Some footage from the indiscriminate bombardment of the historic town of Dubrovnik. The town was not of military importance, but rather entirely populated by citizens. It was evident by now to the world that the Yugoslav army was fighting for Serbdom and was 'de facto' the Serbian army.
 
 
 
Again, to juxtapose the Greater Serbian/Chetnik mentality in the face of reality.  The above video is the same footage of the shelling of Dubrovnik.  Not only do they not acknowledge any wrongdoing whatsover, (Ever), but even go so far as to celebrate their aggression and wanton destuctive actions as some sort of holy war. Justifiable because..well, becuse they're Serbs. (Exerpts from the main chorus of the 'song' in the above video remarkably is about Serbian grenades being guided by the hand of God, that Zagreb is a bit far away, and Sarajevo a bit further, We can't see Tuzla, but we'll send grenade greetings, and wherever the grenades hit, a Serb really doesn't care) Very reminiscent of the current extremist Taliban situation . (Other similarities are purely coincidental) I have access to untold numbers of images and videos I could put here, but like I mentioned above, that would be like flogging a dead horse.
 
 

 
To make it even more plainer to see the willfull disregard for civilian casualties as well as all protocols of war, here is a closer look at the attack on Dubrovnik.
 
 
 
An image from the 4 years of Indiscriminate shelling of Sarajevo by Serbian forces.
 
 
 
 Veterans - Siege of Sarajevo - 14 April 08 - Part 1  
 
 
 
 
 
Shelled Croatian cities
 
   
Many Croatian cities were shelled by RSK forces from rebel Serb-controlled areas, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia.  The most shelled cities were: Vukovar, Slavonski Brod  (from the mountain of Vučjak) and Županja (for more than 1000 days.), Vinkovci, Osijek, Nova Gradiška, Šibenik, Sisak, Dubrovnik, Zadar, Gospić, Karlovac, Biograd na moru, Slavonski Šamac, but also were shelled Ogulin, Duga Resa, Otočac, Ilok, Beli Manastir, Daruvar...
 
 
 
 
 
 
"Milosevic believes he now has the historic opportunity to, once and for all, settle accounts with the Croats and do what Serbian politicians after World War I did not - rally all Serbs in one Serbian state."
 
 
 
 
  — Belgrade newspaper Borba, August 1991 — Stevan Moljević, Homogeneous Serbia During the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, the concept of a Greater Serbia was widely seen outside of Serbia as the motivating force for the military campaigns undertaken to form and sustain Serbian states on the territories of the breakaway Yugoslav republics of Croatia (the Republic of Serbian Krajina) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Republika Srpska). From the Serb point of view, the objective of this policy was to assure Serbs' rights by ensuring that they could never be subjected to potentially hostile rule, particularly by their historic Croatian enemies. The war crimes charges against Milošević are based on the allegation that he sought the establishment of a "Greater Serbia". Prosecutors at the Hague argued that "the indictments were all part of a common scheme, strategy or plan on the part of the accused [Milošević] to create a 'Greater Serbia', a centralized Serbian state encompassing the Serb-populated areas of Croatia and Bosnia and all of Kosovo, and that this plan was to be achieved by forcibly removing non-Serbs from large geographical areas through the commission of the crimes charged in the indictments. Although the events in Kosovo were separated from those in Croatia and Bosnia by more than three years, they were no more than a continuation of that plan, and they could only be understood completely by reference to what had happened in Croatia and Bosnia."

The Hague Trial Chamber found that the strategic plan of the Bosnian Serb leadership consisted of "a plan to link Serb-populated areas in BiH together, to gain control over these areas and to create a separate Bosnian Serb state, from which most non-Serbs would be permanently removed". It also found that media in certain areas focused only on SDS policy and reports from Belgrade became more prominent, including the presentation of extremist views and promotion of the concept of a Greater Serbia, just as in other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina the concept of a Greater Croatia was openly advocated.
 
 
 
 
The Zagreb rocket attacks: The attack killed seven and wounded at least 175 Croatian civilians and was carried out on May 2 and May 3, 1995. The largest of several cities attacked. Serb General Milan Čeleketić announced to the press on March 24, 1995 that his forces would attack "weak points," that is, "the parks of the Croatian cities" and added: "We know who the people in the parks are; civilians." In May 1995 Serb leader Milan Martić ordered Serb rocket artillery units in the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina to fire missiles on the capital of Zagreb. Karlovac and Sisak were also subjected to attacks.  United Nations Special Envoy Yasushi Akashi met with Martić and condemned him for the attack. Martić then threatened to resume the attacks and spoke of "massive rocket attacks on Zagreb which would leave 100,000 people dead." Immediately following the attacks, Milan Martić appeared on Serb television and publicly boasted about ordering the attacks. The attack on Zagreb was one of the main points of the indictment against him at the Hague, to which he confessed, but claimed it was a "legitimate action against the enemy". On June 12, 2007, he was sentenced to 35 years in prison. Momcilo Perisic, Chief of the General Staff of the Yugoslav Army, was also indicted for his role in the rocket attack. As of 2010, he is still on trial.   The concept of a Greater Serbia has been widely criticised by other nations in the former Yugoslavia as well as by foreign observers. The two principal objections have been: * Questionable historical justifications for claims to territory; for instance, during the Croatian War of Independence, Dubrovnik and other parts of Dalmatia were claimed as a historically Serbian territory — claims which were opposed by Croatian authorities, and by high-profile international governments.  
 
* The coercive nature of creating a Greater Serbian state against the will of other nations; before the wars, the peoples of Yugoslavia were highly intermingled and it was physically impossible to create ethnic states without taking in large numbers of other ethnic groups against their will. An answer to this was the widespread use of ethnic cleansing to ensure that mono-ethnic territories could be established without opposition from potentially disloyal minority groups. A converse argument is used against the upgrading the status of Croatia and of Bosnia and Herzegovina from republics to independent states—taking in large numbers of other ethnic groups against their will in the process. Vuk Draskovic, leader of the Serbian Renewal Movement, called for the creation of a Greater Serbia which would include Serbia, Kosovo, Vojvodina, Macedonia and Montenegro, as well as regions within Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia with high concentrations of Serbs. Jovan Marjanovic of the Serbian Renewal Movement asked that "the Yugoslav Army must come into Croatia and occupy the line Benkovac-Karlovac-Pakrac-Baranja". About 160,000 Croats were expelled from territories Serbian forces sought to control. Much of the fighting in the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s was the result of an attempt to keep Serbs unified. Mihajlo Markovic, the Vice President of the Main Committee of Serbia's Socialist Party, rejected any solution that would make Serbs outside Serbia a minority. He proposed establishing a federation consisting of Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbs residing in the Serbian Autonomous Region of Krajina, Slavonia, Baranja, and Srem.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Failure of the Greater Serbian project
 

The military defeat of the Republic of Serb Krajina, the creation of the Republika Srpska within a sovereign Bosnia-Hercegovina, the UN Administration of Kosovo, the exodus of Serbs from large areas of Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo and the indictment of some Serbian leaders for war crimes have greatly discredited the Greater Serbian ideal in Serbia as well as abroad. Western countries claim that atrocities of the Yugoslav Wars have prompted them to take a much stronger stance against the Greater Serbian goal. 
 
 
 
 
 
Nikola Poplasen, the Former President of the Republic of Srpska (The ethnically cleansed part of Bosnia and Hercegovina, Post Dayton Bosnia) in his Chetnik garb.






When approached by journalists and reporters during the occupation of Croatia by Serb nationalists and radical extremists, Patriarch Pavle of Serbia stated: "So I say: if a Greater Serbia should be held by committing crime, I would never accept it; may Greater Serbia disappear, but to hold it by crime - no. If it were necessary to hold only a small Serbia by crime, I would not accept it. May small Serbia disappear, but to hold it by crime - no. And if there is only one Serb, and if I am that last Serb, to hold on by crime - I do not accept. May we disappear, but disappear as humans, because then we will not disappear, we will be alive in the hands of the living God".....However, July 31, 1995, he traveled to the self-proclaimed Krajina capital Knin with Ratko Mladić (currently indicted for war crimes and genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia), to assure the rebel Serbs of military and religious support.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Serbian/Yugoslav Army attack on the city of Ocek Osijek.
 
 

 
Footage from the city of Osijek in 1991. Serbian shelling, mortar and aircraft attacks against a civilian population. Indiscriminate attacks designed to try to scare the population to give up or leave the city. This tactic was used by the Serbian army in many parts of Croatia, B-H and most evident in the seige of Sarajevo.





  Slobodan Milošević and many other Serb leaders were charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) with crimes against humanity including murder, forcible population transfer, deportation and "persecution on political, racial or religious grounds". Tribunal prosecutor's office has accused Milosevic of "the gravest violations of human rights in Europe since the Second World War."  Milosevic died in prison before sentencing. However, the idea of a Greater Serbia is still seen by many Croats, Bosnian Muslims, and Albanians as a barrier to good relations and unity between Serbs and other neighbouring peoples. 

 
 
 
 
Serbs carrying signs that read 'Serbs and Chetniks' like it's supposed to mean something. For a little more insight read HERE.





A recent photo (and video below) from a parade held in Sydney, Australia in 2008.  With mountains of evidence contrary to their claims of heroism and falsified history, they prefer to "feed the lie" that has been told over the last 70+ years. Particularly regarding the history from their wars of aggression in the former-Jugoslavia, where the above mentioned war criminals, and many others, are portrayed as heroes and celebrated in song even.  These same flags and symbols were also used in WWII as well as during the 1990's in proudly committing massive ethnic cleansing, war crimes, untold destruction and causing Europes biggest refugee crisis since WWII.  One may refer to the unwillingness to come to terms with  the truth as a sort of "collective amnesia", and in many cases as "suspension of disbelief", as well as false history propagandized to the extreme. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
And lastly, as an addendum to this addition, I just wanted to touch upon a subject that currently seems to really be a thorn in the paw of Greater Serbian/Chetnik media statements. That being the successful conclusion of Croatia recapturing Greater Srb/Chetnik occupied Croatian territory and thus ending their armed occupation and in effect, Serbian war of aggression against Croatia.  After the expulsion of all Non-Serbs from the border areas, a self proclaimed Serbian entity was established for 4 years, with it's capital being the historic Croatian city of Knin, which was capital of medieval Croatia.  Also, from these occupied areas, attempts were made to gain even more territory, including shelling and rocket attacks of other larger Croatian cities, including the capital city of Zagreb.  In 1993 around 4,000 paramilitaries under the command of Vojislav Šešelj (the White Eagles) and "Arkan" (the Serb Volunteer Guard) arrived to bolster the VSK.(The so-called Army of Serbian |Krajina)    Croatia then made one final push in 1995 to end the war and bring freedom to all Croatian territory, which also helped stop the Serbian slaughter in neighboring BiH.  This was known as 'Operacija Oluja' (Operation Storm). A well planned, timely and precise attack against Serb-Chetnik  and paramilitary positions that was over within a few days.
 
The overwhelming majority of the Serb population, (many who were living in homes that were left vacant by expelled Croatians from 4 years earlier and whose homes had been looted, and some subsequently destroyed), as well as paramilitary soldiers, left for neighboring Bosnia-Hercegovina as soon as it was discovered the Croatian army was amassing for a soon to be final strategic strike. Serbian occupation leaders were already starting to send Serbs to Serbia and Kosovo weeks before,  knowing that their time was up.   (Those retreating Serb/Chetnik forces and paramilitries then joined their comerades in arms in BiH to continue the onslaught there)   Eversince that successful conclusion to the occupation of Croatian territory, Greater Serbian media, politicians and lobbyists have been relentless in trying to compare, and remarkably even put on par this Croatian military objective with the Serbian ethnic cleansing and destruction committed in Sarajevo, Vukovar, Srebrenica, Osijek, Vinkovci, Dubrovnik and countlesss other areas in Croatia and B-H and elsewhere.  Above is the footage of Croatian troops from that Operation Storm (Operacija Oluja) in action, and as can be seen, there is not a hint of ethnic cleansing, indiscriminate shelling, mortar attacks or looting. As mentioned, most of the civilian population had already left, encouraged by retreating Serb paramilitary troops and their leaders,  leaving only scattered remnants for Serb counter-attacks. Once precise strategic strikes to Serbian big guns, tanks, air support and arms depots had started, it was then plain to see, even for the Serbian military, that the Croatian Armed Forces were not the sitting ducks and poorly equipped soldiers from a few years earlier. The Croatian flag was flying above the historic Knin Fortress in a very short time.
 
 
 
 
 
The professionalism and efficiency of the Croatian troops as well as of the military planning involved is very evident, and no policy of systematic cleansing of any kind can be seen.  In the above footage it can be seen that the Croatian Armed Forces knew exactly where Greater Serbian/Chetnik weapons and strategic military positions were for months prior to engagement in "Operation Storm" because of careful planning and serveillance. (All while the self procalimed Yugo-Serb government backed 'Serbian Krajina Army' and citizens were having parades and celebrating their great ethnic cleansing victory and new found criminal quasi-state.) Definitely no indiscriminate bombardment, destruction, looting, forced evictions, but rather the complete oppposite. The reintegration of 4 year occupied and ethnically cleansed Croatian territory and the removal of the source of shelling, rocket and mortar attacks on many other Croatian civilian towns, villages and cities. Only pinpoint pre-planned strikes against military targets were issued. To even insinuate this military operation as somehow unjust or wrong or on a par with Serbian military actions would have to group pretty well all the military operations in Iraq, Afghanistan and many other locations around the world by NATO troops in the same category. Also, just to clear any misconceptions that I am a card carrying member of any Croatian political party, or showing favoritism of one political party over others, and most importantly contrary to Greater Serbian/Chetnik claims, all footage below is soley of the members of the 'Croatian Armed Forces", and not, I repeat NOT! a private HDZ/Franjo Tudman army or some kind of western financed conspiracy force composed of blood drinkers as Greater Serbian/Chetnik nationalist propaganda likes to portray and believe.  And lastly, being of Croatian ancestry and Croatian my mother tongue, well read in the history of Croatian as well as European history, I can honestly say without an ounce of hyperbole that if it wasn't for the grassroots movements and eventual appearance of the Croatian Armed Forces, the Republic of Croatia and a National Croatian government, then the Greater Serbian/Chetnik goals would have been accomplished. The whole of Croatia would have suffered more severe destruction and ethnic cleansing up to and including the capital city of Zagreb, (Which were the words stated by Serbian-Yugoslav leaders) as well as the whole of B-H, and quite possibly the other Republics that were composed of Non-Serbs. Then any hope for a any kind of unified future European Union would also have been dashed. As well as trying to liberate it's own internationally recognized territory and it's economy in shambles, Croatia even had the added misfortune of not only multitudes of Croatian refugees, but masses of refugees from BiH. ( The American Ambassador to Croatia, Peter Galbraith, tried to put the amount of Muslim refugees in Croatia into proper perspective in an interview on 8 November 1993. He said the situation would have been the equivalent of the USA taking in 30,000,000 refugees.- Wikipedia)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
August 4, 1995 order by the RSK Supreme Defence Council ordering evacuation of Srb civilians from towns along the front line in the Knin area.  A decision was reached at 16:45 to "start evacuating the population unfit for military service from the municipalities of Knin, Benkovac, Obrovac, Drniš and Gračac." The internationally unrecognized and terrorist entity known as RSK (Republic of Serbian Krajina) was disbanded and most of the Serb population fled.  Since this event however, Serbian apologists have been relentless in portraying a false version of history that puts blame solely on a non-existent and and  non-Croatian policy of ethnic cleansing. All attempts possible are made to divert attention from the previous 4 year Serb ethnic cleansing and destructive campaigns, and through historical revisionism lay all blame on non-Serbs.         
 
  PHOTO: Serbian Chetnik Commander Pavle Djurisic reporting to the Chetnik General Draza Mihailovich on the extermination of over 9,200 Bosniak Muslims (including women and children) on February 13, 1943. Chetnik apologists like to argue that Draza Mihailovic didn't know anything about genocidal campaigns his forces were committing against the Bosniak Muslim population of Bosnia-Herzegovina. A closer look at the above document reveals that Draza Mihailovic was well aware of genocide his forces were committing in 1943. Under explicit orders from their leader Draze Mihajlovic, the Chetniks attempted to depopulate Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Croatia of all non-Serbs and in the process, massacred most of the 103,000 Bosniaks who perished during the war. Ironically, his son and daughter Branko and Gordana went over to the Partisans in 1943 and both publicly supported their father's execution after the war. 
 
 
 
Here is another recent example of Greater Serbian/Chetnik propaganda. This came out just after the recent Winter Olympic Games which were held in Vancouver this year. The 2 individuals in this lovely photo are of Mladen Plakalovic, (Pictured right) who was a member of the Bosnia and Hercegovina Olympic Biathlon team at the recent Vancouver Winter Olympic Games. And what chick-magnet T-shirt is he wearing?  Why none other than Radovan Karadzic, who is currently at The Hague being tried for multiple war crimes and genocide .  And who is his friend on the left wearing on his tee? Why none other than your friendly neighbourhood  extremist radical Vojislav Seselj, who is also at The Hague on trial for war crimes and crimes against humanity. (The girls in the pool are really turned on as one can see) These photos were posted on his Facebook profile. He's also been stated as saying, What's the big deal? Sometimes truth is truly stranger than fiction. For those of you not in the know, the guys on the Tee's are being tried for war crimes against Bosnian civilians during the 90's war. The Bosnia he represented at the Olympics. This photo says alot in regards to Greater Serbian/Chetnik mentality. Just one of many similar situations. Can you say "Bizarro world"? Source: www.24sata.hr (To have added even more insult and completed the triple play, the only t-shirt missing would have been of current war crimes fugitive Ratko Mladic, (In some reports he has been using an alias while in hiding.)who is still being sought by International Criminal Tribunal prosecutors. www.instituteforgenocide.ca.....But then again, stranger things have happened: www2.macleans.ca
 
               An example of modern day Serbian-Chetnik extremism.  An organization with the Serb Orthodox churches blessing, who's sole aim is hatred against non-Serbs in South-Slavic countries and the elimination of of non-Serb peoples wherever Serbs are a minority or are found to be living.  These days especially, it is a tool of Serbs to whitewash and celebrate Serbian war crimes.  There are many Serbian Chetnik/Greater Serbian and radical Serbian websites on the internet.  It's organizations and websites such as this that must be carefully observed by the governments of the countries where they set up shop.  These are radical centers of revisionist propoganda,  false histories, blatant radical extremism and hatemongering against Non-Serbs.  As well as  glorification of war crimes, crimes against humanity, ethnic cleansing against Non-Serbs,  promoters of terrorist activities against Non-Serbs in the neighbouring Non-Serb countries.  Organizations such as this are the tentacles of the Greater Serbia/Chetnik lie.  Emanating from foreign countries who in many many cases are not aware of the illegal activities and radical cultish philosophies festering there because of their 'historical photoshop' activities.  Many times with the assistance of the Serb Orthodox church which was touched upon earlier in this post.  After reading the brief introductory on this post regarding the distorted history, deeds and future illusionary dreams (Thank goodness) of Greater Serbian/Chetnik supporters, it makes one wonder what exactly there is to be proud of.  Proud enough to dedicate a Facebook page even. www.facebook.com/serbian-chetnik-australia  The above logo is taken from a website that is currently under construction in Australia. www.chetniks.org.au A short video made by the same Chetnik group celebrating the events of 911.           
 
One can click onto the links here for further information, or rather the uncovering of false information. For those so inclined,  one can find much more information and facts about the small sample of information which I posted which is readily available on the internet from a wide variety of sources.
 Related: books.google.ca
www..freewebs.com 
 
www.hic.hr
 
  www.trepca.net  
 
www.economicexpert.com 
 
www.bosnjaci.net 
 
www.thecommentfactory.com 
 
mprofaca.cro.net 
 
www.timesonline.co.uk 
 
srebrenica-genocide.blogsport.com 
 
srebrenica-genocide.blogspot.com 
 
news.bbc.co.uk 
 
www.rjgeib.com 
 
www.freewebs.com 
 
dalje.com  
 
srebrenicamassacre1995.wordpress.com 
 
www.axisglobe.com
 
en.wikipedia.org.Island_of_Sarengrad 
 
 en.wikipedia.org.Island_of_Vukovar
 
 holocaust-of-jews-in-yugoslavia.blogspot.com 
 
 
See also * Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on the former Yugoslavia *
 
 
Persecution of Serbs * Serbian war crimes * Serbianization 
 
 
 
 
 
 Source: www.usud.hr  
 
 
The government of the Republic of Croatia denied basic civil, cultural and linguistic rights to the Serbian minority in Croatia. Reality: On the very day it declared independence Croatia granted extraordinary rights and privileges to Serbs and other minorities in Croatia. It became apparent throughout the world that Serbia was the aggressor in Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina during the break-up of Yugoslavia. Its clear aim was the preservation of a Greater Serbian state while retaining the name Yugoslavia against the expressed will of the majority of the people. However, Serbia's aims were not so clear to many in the West during the terrible days of aggression in the Fall of 1991 and Spring of 1992. A full-scale Serbian propaganda campaign repeated time and time again that the War was to "protect the Serbian minority in Croatia" despite the fact that the Serbs had lived peacefully with the Croatians for nearly a half-century. To reinforce their case, Serbia let it be known to the world that the new Croatian government had made no provision for the rights of Serbs in Croatia. The Western media, unable or unwilling to read the documents provided to them by the Croatian government in English, accepted mythology as fact and in many cases continued to repeat it well into 1992. "The Croatians wrote a new constitution, giving no special rights to Croatia's Serbs..." wrote the Christian Science Monitor on September 19, 1991. Croatian Declaration of Independence, June 25, 1991 In reality, with the very first document to emerge from the new Croatian Republic, its Declaration of Independence on June 25, 1991, the Croatian government guaranteed not only civil rights, but unique rights to the Serbian minority. The first two articles of the Declaration established the rights of Croatia to declare independence and to defend its territorial integrity. Article III of the Declaration stated: "The Republic of Croatia is a democratic, legal and social state in which prevails the supreme values of constitutional order: freedom, equality, ethnic equality, peace, social justice, respect for human rights, pluralism and the inviolability of personal property, environmental protection, the rule of law, and a multi-party system. The Republic of Croatia guarantees Serbs in Croatia and all national minorities who live in this territory the respect of all human and civil rights, especially the freedom to nurture their national language and culture as well as political organizations. The Republic of Croatia protects the rights and interests of its citizens without regard to their religious, ethnic or racial belonging. In accordance with customary and positive international law, the Republic of Croatia guarantees other states and international bodies that it will completely and consciously uphold all its rights and duties as a legal successor to the previous Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to the extent that they relate to the Republic of Croatia. In order to avoid bloodshed and insure a peaceful transition, the Croatian Declaration concluded: The Republic of Croatia calls upon the other republics of the former SFRY to create an alliance of sovereign states on the presumptions of mutual recognition of state sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual respect, recognition of political pluralism and democracy, pluralism of ownership and market economy, and the actual respect of human rights, rights for ethnic minorities and other civilized values of the free world. Serbia met this call for peaceful dialogue with the bloodiest warfare Europe had seen since World War II, slaughtering over ten thousand people, exiling hundreds of thousands and crushing the human rights of non-Serbs in every corner of former Yugoslavia.
 
 
  
 
 
 
 Charter Relating to the Rights of Serbs and Others
 
 
 
In order to dispel any doubts about the Croatian government's commitment to human rights and exceptional rights for the Serbian minority, the Croatian Parliament in its first session as an independent state, adopted The Charter Relating to the Rights of Serbs and Other Nationalities in the Republic of Croatia on June 25, 1991, it read as follows:
I. A just solution relating to the issue of Serbs and other nationalities in the Republic of Croatia is one of the important factors to democracy, stability, peace and economic advancement, and to cooperation with other countries.
II. The protection and full realization of rights for all nationalities in the Republic of Croatia, as well as the protection of individual rights is a composite part of international protection of human and civil rights and the protection of nationalities and as such they belong to the area of international cooperation.
III. The rights of nationalities and international cooperation will not allow any activity which is opposed to the regulations of international law, especially sovereignty, territorial integrity and the political independence of the Republic of Croatia as a united and indivisible democratic and social state.
IV. All nationalities in Croatia are legally protected from such activities that would threaten their existence. They have the right to respect and to self preservation of their cultural autonomy.
V. Serbs in Croatia and all nationalities have the right to proportionally engage in bodies of local self-government and appropriate government bodies, as well as security for economic and social development for the purpose of preserving their identity and for the protection of any attempts of assimilation, which will be regulated by law, territorial organization, local self-government as well as institutionalizing parliamentary bodies which will be responsible for relations between nationalities.
VI. Organizations which will adhere to the aims of its constitution and which are involved in protecting and developing individual nationalities, and as such are representative of the said nationality, have the right to represent the nationality as a whole and each individual belonging to that nationality, within the Republic as well as on an international level. Individual nationalities and members have the right, in order to protect their rights, to tum to international institutions which are involved in the protection of human and national rights.
 
The commitments of the Croatian government to human rights surpassed those of the United States Declaration of Independence which referred to native Americans as "merciless Indian savages," or the U.S. Constitution which specifically defined an African-American as three-fifths of a person.
The Croatian Parliament further strengthened the law on December 4, 1991 by specifically granting local police, courts and governments to Serbs in those areas in which they were a majority. These documents grant Serbs and other national minorities full protection of human rights, guaranteed proportional representation in government, the right to self-government, and protection from any attempts of forced assimilation. It further encouraged individuals and organizations to appeal to international bodies to secure these protections. Ironically, Serbs in Croatia have never needed these provisions. It was the Croatians, Bosnians and Kosova' s Albanian majority who would appeal to the European Community, the United Nations, the International League for Human Rights, Helsinki Watch, Amnesty International and other international bodies for protection from the Serbian minority and the Serbian controlled Army.
           It was less known Srb politicians like Stevan Moljevic (Above) who had designs on a Greater Serbia right from the start of the 1st Yugoslavia. (KSHS)  During the Serb ethnic cleansing campaigns of the 90's his writings were held in high regard by Radovan Karadzic, Vojeslav Seselj, Ratko Mladic and all Serb-Yugoslav military and political leaders.  Just a few of the multitude of examples and instances of Royalist Serbian chetniks and nationalist forces committing atrocities against Croatian civilians, women and children in the first months of WWII. These crimes also extended to other Non-Serbs.
This mutilated Croatian child from Kosutice, Serbian Chetnik ripped out his heart with a knife.   
Smashed heads of Croatian children from the village of Kosutica.    
Croat Jakov Barisic was a Catholic priest from Gradacac. Serbian Chetniks removed his facial skin and massacred his whole body while he was still alive.    
Croat Don Ilija Tomas. A Catholic priest from the village Klepci near Capljina. Serbian Chetniks mutilated his body with a knife.    
When he returned to his village in Bosnia which the Serb chetniks had just left, he found his wife and two small children murdered in front of his own doorstep.   
Croatian child in Gorazde hospital, a lone survivor with a horrible wound from a Chetnik knife.             Holocaust History Misappropriated       
by Philip J. Cohen MIDSTREAM: A Monthly Jewish Review November 1992. Volume XXXVIII No.8. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In conjunction with the war in former Yugoslavia, Serbia has undertaken a campaign to persuade the Jewish community of Serbian friendship for Jews. This same campaign portrays Croats as a common threat to both Jews and Serbs, in an attempt to gain Jewish sympathy and support at a time when most nations have isolated Serbia as a Balkan pariah. However, even as Serbia courts Jewish public opinion, their propagandists conceal a history of well-ingrained antisemitism, which continues unabated in 1992. To make their case, Serbs portray themselves as victims in the Second World War, but conceal the systematic genocide that Serbs had committed against several peoples including the Jews. Thus Serbs have usurped as propaganda the Holocaust that occurred in neighbouring Croatia and Bosnia, but do not give an honest accounting of the Holocaust as it occurred in Serbia. During four centuries of Ottoman rule in the Balkans, the Jewish communities of Serbia enjoyed religious tolerance, internal autonomy, and equality before the law, that ended with the breakup of the Ottoman Empire and the emergence of the Serbian state. Soon after a Serbian insurrection against Turkish rule in 1804, Jews were expelled from the interior of Serbia and prohibited from residing outside of Belgrade. In 1856 and 1861, Jews were further prohibited from travel for the purpose of trade. In official correspondence from the late 19th century, British diplomats detailed the cruel treatment of the Jews of Serbia, which they attributed to religious fanaticism, commercial rivalries, and the belief that Jews were the secret agents of the Turks. Article 23 of the Serbian constitution granted equality to every citizen but Article 132 forbade Jews the right of domicile. The Treaty of Berlin 1878, which formally established the Serbian state, accorded political and civil equality to the Jews of Serbia, but the Serbian Parliament resisted abolishing restrictive decrees for another 11 years. Although the legal status of the Jewish community subsequently improved, the view of Jews as an alien presence persisted. Although Serbian historians contend that the persecution of the Jews of Serbia was entirely the responsibility of Germans and began only with the German occupation, this is self- serving fiction. Fully six months before the Nazi invasion of Yugoslavia, Serbia had issued legislation restricting Jewish participation in the economy and university enrollment.
An entire piece of Serbian history is missing. And in the middle of the latest Yugoslav war-Europe's worst blood bath since World War II-Serbian politicians, propagandists, and revisionist historians have made a cynical attempt at replacing the missing piece by rewriting the Holocaust record: Serbs were not Nazi collaborators in genocide, but purely victims of the same atrocities that befell the Jews; and Serbian aspirations for a Greater Serbia are not driven by a murderous, nationalistic hatred, but rather are propelled by a victim's desire to lay claim to a safe homeland, a Serbian Promised Land. Thus has the current spilling of blood been justified. Philip J. Cohen argues that the existence of such a propaganda campaign, emanating from Belgrade, began in the earliest days of the post-World War II era and, since then, has been reflected in the world media, as well as in popular commentary and scholarly analysis. More astonishing is that this campaign has been widely successful, particularly in Israel.
One year later on 22 October 1941, the rabidly antisemitic "Grand Anti-Masonic Exhibit" opened in occupied Belgrade, funded by the city of Belgrade. The central theme was an alleged Jewish- Communist-Masonic plot for world domination. Newspapers such as Obnova (Renewal) and Nasa Borba (Our Struggle) praised this exhibit, proclaiming that Jews were the ancient enemies of the Serbian people and that Serbs should not wait for the Germans to begin the extermination of the Jews. A few months later, Serbian authorities issued postage stamps commemorating the opening of this popular exhibit.  These stamps, which juxtaposed Jewish and Serbian symbols (but did not contain Nazi symbols), portrayed Judaism as the source of world evil and advocated the humiliation and violent subjugation of Jews. Serbia as well as neighboring Croatia was under Axis occupation during the Second World War.  Although the efficient destruction of Serbian Jewry in the first two years of German occupation has been well documented by respected sources, the extent to which Serbia actively collaborated in that destruction has been less recognized. The Serbian government under General Milan Nedic worked closely with local Nazi officials in making Belgrade the first "Judenfrei" city of Europe. As late as 19 September 1943, Nedic made an official visit to Adolf Hitler, Serbs in Berlin advanced the idea that the Serbs were the "Ubermenchen" (master race) of the Slavs.   Although the Serbian version of history portrays wartime Serbia as a helpless, occupied territory, Serbian newspapers of the period offer a portrait of intensive collaboration. In November 1941, Mihajlo Olcan, a minister in Nedic's government boasted that "Serbia has been allowed what no other occupied country has been allowed and that is to establish law and order with its own armed forces". Indeed, with Nazi blessings, Nedic established the Serbian State Guard, numbering about 20,000, compared to the 3,400 German police in Serbia. Recruiting advertisements for the Serb police force specified that "applicants must have no Jewish or Gypsy blood". Nedic's second in command was Dimitrije Ljotic, founder of the Serbian Fascist Party and the principal Fascist ideologist of Serbia. Ljotic organized the Serbian Volunteers Corps, whose primary function was rounding up Jews, Gypsies, and partisans for execution. Serbian citizens and police received cash bounties for the capture and delivery of Jews. The Serbian Orthodox Church openly collaborated with the Nazis, and many priests publicly defended the persecution of the Jews. On 13 August 1941, approximately 500 distinguished Serbs signed "An Appeal to the Serbian Nation", which called for loyalty to the occupying Nazis. The first three signers were bishops of the Serbian Orthodox Church. On 30 January 1942, Metropolitan Josif, the acting head of the Holy Synod of the Serbian Orthodox Church, officially prohibited conversions of Jews to Serbian Orthodoxy, thereby blocking a means of saving Jewish lives. At a public rally, after the government Minister Olcan "thanked God that the enormously powerful fist of Germany had not come down upon the head of the Serbian nation" but instead "upon the heads of the Jews in our midst", the speaker of these words was then blessed by a high-ranking Serbian Orthodox priest. A most striking example of Serbian antisemitism combined with historical revisionism is the case of Bishop Nikolaj Velimirovic (1880-1956), revered as one of the most influential church leaders and ideologists after Saint Sava, founder of the Serbian Orthodox Church. To Serbs, Bishop Velimirovic was a martyr who survived torture in the Dachau prison camp. In truth he was brought to Dachau (as were other prominent European clergy), because the Nazis believed he could be useful for propaganda. There he spent approximately two months as an "Ehrenhaftling" (honour prisoner) in a special section, dining on the same food as the German officers, living in private quarters, and making excursions into town under German escort. From Dachau, this venerated priest endorsed the Holocaust: Europe is presently the main battlefield of the Jew and his father, the devil, against the heavenly Father and his only begotten Son... (Jews) first need to become legally equal with Christians in order to repress Christianity next, turn Christians into atheist, and step on their necks. All the modern European slogans have been made up by Jews, the crucifiers of Christ: democracy, strikes, socialism atheism, tolerance of all religions, pacifism, universal revolution, capitalism and communism... All this has been done with the intention to eliminate Christ... You should think about this, my Serbian brethren, and correspondingly correct your thoughts, desires and acts. (Bishop Nikolaj Velimirovic: Addresses to the Serbian People--Through the Prison Window. Himmelsthur, Germany: Serbian Orthodox Eparchy for Western Europe, 1985, pp. 161-162).
The Serbian chetnik philosophy and it's various organizations have the belief that they are freedom fighters.  That they were fighting Germans and Italians during WW2. That however is not the case at all.  These bands would one day being battling Germans, retreat, then assist them as accomplices, getting military aid as well. This went on during the whole course of the war and involving various other fascist forces.  The Russians knew this from the start, and when taking into account Nedic's Nazi puppet state as well, the Serbs were a very untrustworthy fighting force with untrustworthy policies and leaders.
Despite Serbian claims to the contrary, Germans were not alone in killing the Jews of Serbia. The long concealed Historical Archives in Belgrade reveal that Banjica, a concentration camp located in Belgrade, was primarily staffed by Serbs. Funding for the conversion of the former barracks of the Serbian 18th infantry division to a concentration, came from the municipal budget of Belgrade. The camp was divided into German and Serbian sections. From Banjica there survive death lists written entirely in Serbian in the Cyrillic alphabet. At least 23,697 victims passed through the Serbian section of this camp. Many were Jews, including at least 798 children, of whom at least 120 were shot by Serbian guards. The use of mobile gassing vans by Nazis in Serbia for the extermination of Jewish women and children has been well documented. It is less appreciated, however, that a Serbian business firm had contracted with the Gestapo to purchase these same victims cloths, which sometimes contained hidden money or jewelry in the linings.  In August 1942, following the virtual liquidation of Serbia's Jews, Nedic's government attempted to claim all Jewish property for the Serbian state. In the same month, Dr. Harald Turner; the chief of the Nazi civil administration of Serbia, boasted that Serbia was the only country in which the "Jewish question" was solved. Turner himself attributed this "success" to Serbian help. Thus, 94 percent of Serbia's 16,000 Jews were exterminated, with the considerable cooperation of the Serbian government, the Serbian Orthodox Church, the Serbian State Guard, the Serbian police and the Serbian public. Today, many Serbs proudly cite the Chetniks as a resistance force and even claim that the Chetniks were somehow allied with the United States during the Second World War, but this is simply historical revisionism. According to the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, Chetnik resistance against the Nazis came to a complete stop as early as the end of 1941. Thereafter, the Chetnik resistance actively collaborated with the both Nazis and Fascists, and for this reason Jewish fighters found it necessary to abandon the Chetniks, in favour of Tito's Partisans. In reality, the Chetniks, dedicated primarily to the restoration of the Serbian throne and territorial expansion of the Serbian state, were the moral counterpart of Croatia's Ustatsha. Both were quintessentially genocidal; the Chetniks committed systematic genocide against Muslims, who, for nearly all of 500 years had lived peacefully with the Sephardic Jewish community. Under explicit orders from their leader Draze Mihajlovic, the Chetniks attempted to depopulate Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Croatia of all non- Serbs and in the process, massacred most of the 86,000 to 103,000 Muslims who perished during the war. For years, the Serbian dominated Belgrade government has supported and trained PLO terrorists. Immediately after the murder of Leon Klinghoffer aboard the Achille Lauro in 1985, the terrorist mastermind Abu Abbas was welcomed in Belgrade. Since the late 1980's, Abu-Nidal has maintained a large terrorist infrastructure in Yugoslavia, in coordination with Libyan, Iraqi, and Yugoslav intelligence services. During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, as Iraqi missiles landed in Israel, Belgrade supported its ally Iraq. Support of anti-Israel terrorism may be a consequence of support for nonaligned Arab states, rather than an expression of anti-Jewish sentiment. Although the Jewish community of Serbia is not currently experiencing persecution, overt expressions of Serbian antisemitism do surface in such mainstream institutions as the Serbian Orthodox Church and the official news media. The 15 January 1992 issue of the official publication of the Serbian Orthodox Church, Pravoslavlje (Orthodoxy), carried an article entitled, "Jews Crucify Christ Again." In this polemic, "treacherous" and "surreptitious" Israeli politicians were said to be constrained from expressing their "pathological" hatred of Christians openly because "they know that Christian countries gave them the state." Allegedly, nuns are so frequently beaten in Israel, that one nun was actually "happy, because they only spit in her face."  Only weeks later, when Russia extended diplomatic recognition to the former Yugoslav republics of Croatia and Slovenia, the official Yugoslav (Serbian perspective) news agency Tanjug blamed "a Jewish conspiracy" against Serbia, hauntingly reminiscent of the theme of the 1941 anti-Masonic exhibit. The essential strategy of Serbian propaganda is to portray the spiritual kinship between Jews and Serbs as victims of the Holocaust and endangered by Croats. This concept is disseminated through the Serbian-Jewish Friendship Society, founded in Belgrade in 1988 and supported by the Serbian government. In January and February 1992, Dr. Klara Mandic, the secretary-general and principal voice of this organization, syndicated a chilling article in the North American Jewish press. This article alleged that Ankica Konjuh, an elderly Jewish woman, was tortured and murdered by "Croat extremists" in September 1991. However, even as she released this story to the press, Dr. Mandic knew that Ankica Konjuh was neither a Jew nor could have been killed by Croats. Bona-fide witnesses have testified that Ankica Konjuh, a 67 year-old Croat, was one of 240 civilians massacred by Serbian forces after the last Croat defenders were driven from the region. Moreover on 23 December 1991, the Federation of Jewish Communities of Yugoslavia met in Belgrade and demanded in writing that Dr. Mandic cease and desist misrepresenting Ankica Konjuh as the first Jewish victim of the war. Nevertheless, in late February 1992, when Dr. Mandic lectured at the Hillel House of George Washington University in Washington, D.C., she provided the rabbi with a copy of that misleading article, delivered without further comment. It is noteworthy that this speaking engagement was part of a tour arranged by Wise Communications, a Washington-based public relations firm representing the Serbian oil company Jugopetrol, a thinly veiled proxy for the Communist Belgrade government. Beginning with the proposition that antisemitism has never existed in Serbia, Dr. Mandic portrayed Croatia as preparing to repeat the Holocaust. She claimed to be a "Jewish leader," although Jews are distinctly absent from her constituency. Less than half a dozen Jews are actual members of her society of several thousand. She introduced herself as an "eyewitness" speaking on behalf of Croatian Jews, although since the war began, she has had no contact with any of the nine Jewish communities of Croatia. When Dr. Mandic was asked to comment on Serbian (Yugoslav Army) shelling of the synagogue of Dubrovnik, the second oldest surviving synagogue in Europe, she denied that the synagogue had ever been damaged at all. Meanwhile, the attack has been well documented by the Jewish community of Dubrovnik and the World Monument Fund. Jewish sensitivity to the Holocaust is similarly exploited by the Jewish-Serbian Friendship Society of America (Granada Hills, California), an offshoot of Dr. Mandic's organization. Its newsletter equates the Jewish and Serbian positions during World War II, both as victims of Croats, but fails to mention Serbian complicity in the Holocaust, Serbian collaboration with the Nazis, and Serbian genocide against Croats, Gypsies, and Muslims. It warns of an imminent Holocaust being initiated in Croatia.  A contrasting portrayal of Croatia, however, emerges from a spectrum of Croatian Jews, American Jews who have visited Croatia, and international Jewish agencies monitoring events on site. All concur that there is no state-sponsored antisemitism in Croatia; the rights of the Jewish minority are respected; and antisemitic incidents are virtually unknown. Thus, only a few dozen of the 2,000 Jews of Croatia have chosen to emigrate to Israel since the war began. Serbia of today and Germany in World War II offer striking parallels. In 1991, Vojislav Seselj, a member of the Serbian Parliament and leader of the Serbian irregulars who call themselves Chetniks, declared, "We want no one else on our territory and we will fight for our true borders. The Croats must either move or die." Croats in Serbian conquered regions are forced to wear red-and-white armbands, analogous to the yellow armbands worn by Jews in Serbia during the Holocaust.  The stated purpose of the expulsion of Muslims and Croats from captured regions is "ethnic cleansing." The indigenous non-Serbian populations of the invaded territories are being driven from their homes, exterminated, or imprisoned in concentration camps, to create regions of Serbian ethnic purity. Jewish community centres, synagogues, and cemeteries have been damaged and destroyed by characteristically indiscriminate Serbian artillery attacks. To all of this, the Jewish-Serbian Friendship Society has remained conspicuously silent. Belgrade has promoted the myth of Serbian kinship with the Jews as fellow victims of Nazi oppression, while concealing the true extent of Serbian collaboration with the Nazis. It is ironic that Serbia is now seeking Jewish support for a war in which both the idealogy and methodology so tragically echo nazism. The European Community, the Helsinki Commission, the United Nations, and the United States have all condemned Serbia as the aggressor. Western diplomats have characterized the current Serbian regime as "a lying, terrorist criminal organization." Serbia, however, claims to be the victim and campaigns for Jewish sympathy and support, exploiting the powerful symbolism of the Holocaust. Serbia's professed solicitude for the Jewish people must be reexamined.

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